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Access to the bar after the LLB International and European Law


Our LLB programme International and European Law programme does not grant access to the bar or judiciary. It is possible however to gain access to the bar of judiciary in some cases; it differs per country how this can be done however. The Faculty is only aware of a few options available, but will continue to add to the list.

The Netherlands

In order to gain access to the bar or judiciary in the Netherlands, students need to have acquired the so-called 'effectus civilis' ('civiel effect'). This 'effectus civilis' can be obtained by participating in several Dutch law courses dealing with all main fields of law. The University of Groningen offers a shortened Bachelor of Laws programme (taught in Dutch) for students who would be interested in getting this 'effectus civilis' and who are currently enrolled in the LLB International and European Law.
Please be aware that the Technology Law track students can only join the shortened bachelor Rechtsgeleerdheid after taking 25 ECTS worth of courses from the regular track on top of their Technology Law track.

Other Dutch Law faculties in the Netherlands might have different requirements.
More information about the specific requirements for access to the Dutch bar can be found at the site of the
Dutch Bar Association(the 'Nederlandse Orde van Advocaten'). Please keep in mind that all courses that will lead to the 'effectus civilis' will be offered in Dutch and thus your level of Dutch language proficiency needs to be a minimum of C1 (CEFR).

United Kingdom

Currently all students who want to convert their degree to be eligible to access the UK bar, have to participate in a conversion degree called the Graduate Diploma of Law(GDL). It is also possible to go through an MA Law or a Legal Practice Course (LPC).

Recently the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA) announced their decision to reform the solicitor qualification in England and Wales by introducing the Solicitors Qualifying Examination (SQE). All foreign lawyers will have to take 2 tests and gain 2 years of legal experience in England or Wales to qualify as a solicitor. This legal experience can be gained before taking the test. The test is meant to come into effect in 2021. More information about the SQE can be found here.


In Zimbabwe students have to participate in a conversion degree for 1 year. It entails 14 exams, but possibly students can get exemptions. More information is available at the Zimbabwean Law Society or their page on Facebook.

Last update: 9-11-2023

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