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Otto, Prof. Sijbren

Sijbren Otto
Sijbren Otto

Sijbren Otto is Professor of Systems Chemistry. He studies ‘chemical evolution’. His research group developed a model system of molecules that can make copies of themselves, and showed that diversity can also occur as a result of the mutation of replicators.

Up to now, chemistry research has primarily focused on developing stable systems. But biological systems depend on development and decay, on synthesis and degradation, and on the succession of life and death. Sijbren Otto wants to know whether these biological principles can also be applied to synthetic chemistry. Self-assembling and self-replicating macromolecules play an important role in that process. Synthetic chemical systems of such molecules could also undergo a Darwinian type of evolution. A first step towards synthesized life, Otto

In 2017, he was awarded a prestigious € 2.5 million ERC grant to investigate the possibilities of synthesizing life de-novo in the lab. Otto hopes to take the next steps to bridge the gap between chemistry and biology by building fully synthetic systems. These systems have the essential elements of life: replication, metabolism and compartmentalization. Up to now, it has not been possible to integrate these characteristics in a fully synthetic system. In 2020, Otto was appointed a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW).

In 2021, Otto was awarded the James Flack Norris Award in Physical Organic Chemistry of the American Chemical Society for his leading contribution to establishing the field of systems chemistry. Besides Sijbren Otto, Ben Feringa is the only Dutch scientist that has received this award (in 2007).

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Otto, S. (2022). An Approach to the de Novo Synthesis of Life. Accounts of Chemical Research, 55(2), 145-155.
Hatai, J., Altay, Y., Sood, A., Kiani, A., Eleveld, M. J., Motiei, L., Margulies, D., & Otto, S. (2022). An Optical Probe for Real-Time Monitoring of Self-Replicator Emergence and Distinguishing between Replicators. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 144(7), 3074-3082.
Liu, B., Wu, J., Geerts, M., Markovitch, O., Pappas, C. G., Liu, K., & Otto, S. (2022). Out-of-equilibrium self-replication allows selection for dynamic kinetic stability in a system of competing replicators. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 61(18), [e202117605].
Schaeffer, G., Eleveld, M. J., Ottele, J., Kroon, P. C., Frederix, P. W. J. M., Yang, S., & Otto, S. (2022). Stochastic Emergence of Two Distinct Self-Replicators from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 144(14), 6291-6297.


Yang, S., Schaeffer, G., Mattia, E., Markovitch, O., Liu, K., Hussain, A. S., Ottelé, J., Sood, A., & Otto, S. (2021). Chemical Fueling Enables Molecular Complexification of Self-Replicators**. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 60(20), 11344-11349.
Liu, B., Beatty, M. A., Pappas, C. G., Liu, K., Ottelé, J., & Otto, S. (2021). Self-Sorting in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries Leads to the Co-Existence of Foldamers and Self-Replicators. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 60(24), 13569-13573.
Komáromy, D., Tiemersma-Wegman, T., Kemmink, J., Portale, G., Adamski, P. R., Blokhuis, A., Aalbers, F. S., Marić, I., Santiago, G. M., Ottelé, J., Sood, A., Saggiomo, V., Liu, B., van der Meulen, P., & Otto, S. (2021). Stoichiometry alone can steer supramolecular systems on complex free energy surfaces with high selectivity. Chem, 7(7), 1933-1951.
Pappas, C. G., Liu, B., Marić, I., Ottelé, J., Kiani, A., van der Klok, M. L., Onck, P. R., & Otto, S. (2021). Two Sides of the Same Coin: Emergence of Foldamers and Self-Replicators from Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 143(19), 7388–7393.


Markovitch, O., Ottele, J., Veldman, O., & Otto, S. (2020). Automated device for continuous stirring while sampling in liquid chromatography systems. Communications chemistry, 3(1), [180].
Maity, S., Ottelé, J., Santiago, G. M., Frederix, P. W. J. M., Kroon, P., Markovitch, O., Stuart, M. C. A., Marrink, S. J., Otto, S., & Roos, W. H. (2020). Caught in the Act: Mechanistic Insight into Supramolecular Polymerization-Driven Self-Replication from Real-Time Visualization. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 142(32), 13709-13717.
Ottelé, J., Hussain, A. S., Mayer, C., & Otto, S. (2020). Chance emergence of catalytic activity and promiscuity in a self-replicator. Nature Catalysis, 3(7), 547-553.
Markovitch, O., Kramer, B. H., Weissing, F. J., van Doorn, G. S., & Otto, S. (2020). Competition dynamics in a chemical system of self-replicating macrocycles. In J. Bongard, J. Lovato, L. Hebert-Dufrésne, R. Dasari, & L. Soros (Eds.), Artificial Life Conference Proceedings (Vol. 32, pp. 462-464). MIT Press.
Monreal Santiago, G., Liu, K., Browne, W. R., & Otto, S. (2020). Emergence of light-driven protometabolism on recruitment of a photocatalytic cofactor by a self-replicator. Nature Chemistry, 12(7), 603-607.
Pappas, C. G., Mandal, P. K., Liu, B., Kauffmann, B., Miao, X., Komáromy, D., Hoffmann, W., Manz, C., Chang, R., Liu, K., Pagel, K., Huc, I., & Otto, S. (2020). Emergence of low-symmetry foldamers from single monomers. Nature Chemistry, 12(12), 1180-1186.
Adamski, P., Eleveld, M., Sood, A., Kun, Á., Szilágyi, A., Czárán, T., Szathmáry, E., & Otto, S. (2020). From self-replication to replicator systems en route to de novo life. Nature reviews chemistry, 4(8), 386-403.
Liu, B., Pappas, C. G., Ottelé, J., Schaeffer, G., Jurissek, C., Pieters, P. F., Altay, M., Marić, I., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2020). Spontaneous Emergence of Self-Replicating Molecules Containing Nucleobases and Amino Acids. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 142(9), 4184-4192.


Liu, B., Pappas, C. G., Zangrando, E., Demitri, N., Chmielewski, P. J., & Otto, S. (2019). Complex Molecules That Fold Like Proteins Can Emerge Spontaneously. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 141(4), 1685-1689.
Malakoutikhah, M., Schaeffer, G., Monreal Santiago, G., Yang, S., Maric, I., & Otto, S. (2019). Cross-Catalysis between Self-Replicators of Different Handedness. Journal of Systems Chemistry, 7(1).
Bartolec, B., Leonetti, G., Li, J., Smit, W., Altay, M., Monreal Santiago, G., Yan, Y., & Otto, S. (2019). Emergence of Compartments Formed from Unconventional Surfactants in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Langmuir, 35(17), 5787-5792.


Altay, Y., Altay, M., & Otto, S. (2018). Existing Self-Replicators Can Direct the Emergence of New Ones. Chemistry, 24(46), 11911-11915.
Altay, M., Altay, Y., & Otto, S. (2018). Parasitic Behavior of Self-Replicating Molecules. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 57(33), 10564-10568.
Bartolec, B., Altay, M., & Otto, S. (2018). Template-promoted self-replication in dynamic combinatorial libraries made from a simple building block. Chemical Communications, 54(93), 13096-13098.


Matysiak, B. M., Nowak, P., Cvrtila, I., Pappas, C. G., Liu, B., Komaromy, D., & Otto, S. (2017). Antiparallel Dynamic Covalent Chemistries. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(19), 6744-6751.
van Esch, J. H., Klajn, R., & Otto, S. (2017). Chemical systems out of equilibrium. Chemical Society Reviews, 46(18), 5474-5475.
Komáromy, D., Tezcan, M., Schaeffer, G., Marić, I., & Otto, S. (2017). Effector-Triggered Self-Replication in Coupled Subsystems. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 56(46), 14658-14662.
Altay, Y., Tezcan, M., & Otto, S. (2017). Emergence of a New Self-Replicator from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library Requires a Specific Pre-Existing Replicator. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(39), 13612-13615.
Mattia, E., Pal, A., Leonetti, G., & Otto, S. (2017). Mechanism of Building Block Exchange in Stacks of Self-Replicating Macrocycles. Synlett, 28(1), 103-107.
Otto, S. (2017). Reaction: Thinking-Species Chemistry and the World's Problems. Chem, 2(2), 158-159.
Cvrtila, I., Fanlo-Virgos, H., Schaeffer, G., Santiago, G. M., & Otto, S. (2017). Redox Control over Acyl Hydrazone Photoswitches. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(36), 12459-12465.
Komaromy, D., Stuart, M. C. A., Monréal Santiago, G., Tezcan, M., Krasnikov, V. V., & Otto, S. (2017). Self-Assembly Can Direct Dynamic Covalent Bond Formation Towards Diversity or Specificity. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(17), 6234-6241.
Frederix, P. W. J. M., Idé, J., Altay, Y., Schaeffer, G., Surin, M., Beljonne, D., Bondarenko, A. S., Jansen, T. L. C., Otto, S., & Marrink, S. J. (2017). Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of Assemblies of Self-Replicating Peptide Macrocycles. Acs Nano, 11(8), 7858-7868.
Ashkenasy, G., Hermans, T. M., Otto, S., & Taylor, A. F. (2017). Systems chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews, 46(9), 2543-2554.
Duim, H., & Otto, S. (2017). Towards open-ended evolution in self-replicating molecular systems. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, 13, 1189-1203.


Sadownik, J. W., Mattia, E., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2016). Diversification of self-replicating molecules. Nature Chemistry, 8(3), 264-269.
Mondal, M., Radeva, N., Fanlo-Virgos, H., Otto, S., Klebe, G., & Hirsch, A. K. H. (2016). Fragment Linking and Optimization of Inhibitors of the Aspartic Protease Endothiapepsin: Fragment-Based Drug Design Facilitated by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 55(32), 9422-9426.
Nguyen, V. D., Pal, A., Snijkers, F., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Leonetti, G., Otto, S., & van der Gucht, J. (2016). Multi-step control over self-assembled hydrogels of peptide-derived building blocks and a polymeric cross-linker. Soft Matter, 12(2), 432-440.


Li, J., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2015). An Allosteric Receptor by Simultaneous "Casting" and "Molding" in a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 54(3), 833-837.
Pal, A., Malakoutikhah, M., Leonetti, G., Tezcan, M., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Nguyen, V. D., van der Gucht, J., & Otto, S. (2015). Controlling the Structure and Length of Self-Synthesizing Supramolecular Polymers through Nucleated Growth and Disassembly. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 54(27), 7852-7856.
Colomb-Delsuc, M., Mattia, E., Sadownik, J. W., & Otto, S. (2015). Exponential self-replication enabled through a fibre elongation/breakage mechanism. Nature Communications, 6, [7427].
Han, Y., Nowak, P., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Leal, M. P., & Otto, S. (2015). Instructable Nanoparticles Using Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. Langmuir, 31(46), 12658-12663.
Nowak, P., Saggiomo, V., Salehian, F., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Han, Y., & Otto, S. (2015). Localized Template-Driven Functionalization of Nanoparticles by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 54(14), 4192-4197.
Leonetti, G., & Otto, S. (2015). Solvent Composition Dictates Emergence in Dynamic Molecular Networks Containing Competing Replicators. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137(5), 2067-2072.
Mattia, E., & Otto, S. (2015). Supramolecular systems chemistry. Nature Nanotechnology, 10(2), 111-119.
Nowak, P., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Otto, S., & Li, J. (2015). Template-Triggered Emergence of a Self-Replicator from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137(34), 10965-10969.


Li, J., Cvrtila, I., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Otten, E., & Otto, S. (2014). An "Ingredients" Approach to Functional Self-Synthesizing Materials: A Metal-Ion-Selective, Multi-Responsive, Self-Assembled Hydrogel. Chemistry, 20(48), 15709-15714.
Li, J., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2014). Catenanes from catenanes: quantitative assessment of cooperativity in dynamic combinatorial catenation. Chemical Science, 5(12), 4968-4974.
Grzybowski, B., Otto, S., & Philp, D. (2014). Systems chemistry: A web themed issue. Chemical Communications, 50(95), 14924-14925.
Fanlo-Virgos, H., Alba, A-N. R., Hamieh, S., Colomb-Delsuc, M., & Otto, S. (2014). Transient Substrate-Induced Catalyst Formation in a Dynamic Molecular Network. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 53(42), 11346-11350.


Hamieh, S., Saggiomo, V., Nowak, P., Mattia, E., Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2013). A "Dial-A-Receptor" Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 52(47), 12368-12372.
Li, J., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2013). Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: From Exploring Molecular Recognition to Systems Chemistry. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135(25), 9222-9239.
Rombouts, W. H., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Werten, M. W. T., Otto, S., de Wolf, F. A., & van der Gucht, J. (2013). Enhanced rigidity and rupture strength of composite hydrogel networks of bio-inspired block copolymers. Soft Matter, 9(29), 6936-6942.
Saggiomo, V., Hristova, Y. R., Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2013). Systems chemistry: using thermodynamically controlled networks to assess molecular similarity. Journal of Systems Chemistry, 4(2).
Otto, S. (2013). The role of solvent cohesion in nonpolar solvation. Chemical Science, 4(7), 2953-2959.
Malakoutikhah, M., Peyralans, J. J-P., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Fanlo-Virgós, H., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2013). Uncovering the selection criteria for the emergence of multi-building-block replicators from dynamic combinatorial libraries. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135(49), 18406-18417.


Hamieh, S., Ludlow, R. F., Perraud, O., West, K. R., Mattia, E., & Otto, S. (2012). A Synthetic Receptor for Nicotine from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Organic letters, 14(21), 5404-5407.
Otto, S. (2012). Dynamic Molecular Networks: From Synthetic Receptors to Self-Replicators. Accounts of Chemical Research, 45(12), 2200-2210.
Wang, J., Stuart, M. A. C., Marcelis, A. T. M., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Otto, S., & van der Gucht, J. (2012). Stable Polymer Micelles Formed by Metal Coordination. Macromolecules, 45(17), 7179-7185.
Saggiomo, V., Otto, S., Marques, I., Felix, V., Torroba, T., & Quesada, R. (2012). The role of lipophilicity in transmembrane anion transport. Chemical Communications, 48(43), 5274-5276.


Rodriguez-Docampo, Z., Eugenieva-Ilieva, E., Reyheller, C., Belenguer, A. M., Kubik, S., & Otto, S. (2011). Dynamic combinatorial development of a neutral synthetic receptor that binds sulfate with nanomolar affinity in aqueous solution. Chemical Communications, 47(35), 9798-9800.
Hunt, R. A. R., Otto, S., & Hunt, R. A. R. (2011). Dynamic combinatorial libraries: new opportunities in systems chemistry. Chemical Communications, 47(3), 847-858.
Li, J., Carnall, J. M. A., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2011). Hydrogel Formation upon Photoinduced Covalent Capture of Macrocycle Stacks from Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 50(36), 8384-8386.


Besenius, P., Cormack, P. A. G., Ludlow, R. F., Otto, S., & Sherrington, D. C. (2010). Affinity chromatography in dynamic combinatorial libraries: one-pot amplification and isolation of a strongly binding receptor. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 8(10), 2414-2418.
Mansfeld, F. M., Au-Yeung, H. Y., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2010). Dynamic combinatorial chemistry at the phospholipid bilayer interface. Journal of Systems Chemistry, 1(12).
Au-Yeung, H. Y., Cougnon, F. B. L., Otto, S., Pantos, G. D., Sanders, J. K. M., & Pantoş, G. D. (2010). Exploiting donor-acceptor interactions in aqueous dynamic combinatorial libraries: exploratory studies of simple systems. Chemical Science, 1(5), 567-574.
Carnall, J. M. A., Waudby, C. A., Belenguer, A. M., Stuart, M. C. A., Peyralans, J. J. -P., & Otto, S. (2010). Mechanosensitive Self-Replication Driven by Self-Organization. Science, 327(5972), 1502-1506.
Otto, S. (2010). MOLECULAR MACHINES Tiny steps: Tiny steps. Nature Chemistry, 2(2), 75-76.
Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2010). The Impact of the Size of Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries on the Detectability of Molecular Recognition Induced Amplification. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132(17), 5984-+.
Otto, S. (2010). The Practice of Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: Analytical Chemistry, Experimental Design, and Data Analysis. In S. Otto, & J. N. H. Reek (Eds.), Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry (pp. 23-47).
Otto, S., & Reek, J. N. H. (2010). Trends and Perspectives. In S. Otto, & J. N. H. Reek (Eds.), Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry (pp. 185-194).
Kiedrowski, G. V., Otto, S., & Herdewijn, P. (2010). Welcome Home, Systems Chemists! Journal of Systems Chemistry, 1(1).


Likhitsup, A., Deeth, R. J., Otto, S., & Marsh, A. (2009). Apparent non-statistical binding in a ditopic receptor for guanosine. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 7(10), 2093-2103.
Hunt, R. A. R., Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2009). Estimating equilibrium constants for aggregation from the product distribution of a dynamic combinatorial library. Organic letters, 11(22), 5110-5113.
Otto, S. (2009). MOLECULAR SELF-ASSEMBLY Helping themselves. Nature Nanotechnology, 4(1), 13-14.
Mansfeld, F. M., Feng, G., & Otto, S. (2009). Photo-induced molecular-recognition-mediated adhesion of giant vesicles. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 7(20), 4289-4295.
Peyralans, J. J. P., & Otto, S. (2009). Recent highlights in systems chemistry. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 13(5-6), 705-713.
Au-Yeung, H. Y., Pengo, P., Pantoş, G. D., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2009). Templated amplification of a naphthalenediimide-based receptor from a donor–acceptor dynamic combinatorial library in water. Chemical Communications, 419-421.


West, K. R., Ludlow, R. F., Corbett, P. T., Besenius, P., Mansfeld, F. M., Cormack, P. A. G., Sherrington, D. C., Goodman, J. M., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2008). Dynamic combinatorial discovery of a [2]-catenane and its guest-induced conversion into a molecular square host. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(33), 10834-+.
Corbett, P. T., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2008). Exploring the Relation between Amplification and Binding in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries of Macrocyclic Synthetic Receptors in Water. Chemistry, 14(7).
Rodriguez-Docampo, Z., & Otto, S. (2008). Orthogonal or simultaneous use of disulfide and hydrazone exchange in dynamic covalent chemistry in aqueous solution. Chemical Communications, 41(42), 5301-5303.
Besenius, P., Cormack, P. A. G., Ludlow, R. F., Otto, S., & Sherrington, D. C. (2008). Polymer-supported cationic templates for molecular recognition of anionic hosts in water. Chemical Communications, 2(24).
Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2008). Systems chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews, 37.
Besenius, P., Cormack, P. A. G., Liu, J., Otto, S., Sanders, J. K. M., & Sherrington, D. C. (2008). Tailored Polymer-Supported Templates in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: Simultaneous Selection, Amplification and Isolation of Synthetic Receptors. Chemistry, 14(29).
Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2008). Two-vial, LC-MS identification of ephedrine receptors from a solution-phase dynamic combinatorial library of over 9000 components. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(37), 12218-+.


Sarma, R. J., Otto, S., & Nitschke, J. R. (2007). Disulfides, Imines, and Metal Coordination within a Single System: Interplay between Three Dynamic Equilibria. Chemistry, 13(34).
Otto, S., & Severin, K. (2007). Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries for the Development of Synthetic Receptors and Sensors. In T. Schrader (Ed.), Creative Chemical Sensor Systems (277 ed., pp. 267-288). (Topics in Current Chemistry; No. 277).
Ludlow, R. F., Liu, J., Li, H., Roberts, S. L., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2007). Host–Guest Binding Constants Can Be Estimated Directly from the Product Distributions of Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 4G, 5762-5764.
Corbett, P. T., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2007). Systems Chemistry: Pattern Formation in Random Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Angewandte Chemie, 119(46).


Vial, L., Ludlow, R. F., Leclaire, J., Pérez-Fernández, R., & Otto, S. (2006). Controlling the Biological Effects of Spermine Using a Synthetic Receptor. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128(31), 10253-10257.
Suksai, C., Figueiras Gómez, S., Chhabra, A., Liu, J., Skepper, J. N., Tuntulani, T., & Otto, S. (2006). Controlling the Morphology of Aggregates of an Amphiphilic Synthetic Receptor through Host-Guest Interactions. Langmuir, 22(14).
Corbett, P. T., Leclaire, J., Vial, L., West, K. R., Wietor, J-L., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2006). Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. ChemInform, 37(48), 3652-3711.
Pengo, P., Pantoş, G. D., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2006). Efficient and Mild Microwave-Assisted Stepwise Functionalization of Naphthalenediimide with α-Amino Acids. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 71(18).
Rodriguez-Docampo, Z., Pascu, S. I., Kubik, S., & Otto, S. (2006). Noncovalent Interactions within a Synthetic Receptor Can Reinforce Guest Binding. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128(34).
Otto, S. (2006). Reinforced molecular recognition as an alternative to rigid receptors. Dalton Transactions, 400(23), 2861-2864.
Kraft, A., Tominey, A., Andrew, D., Dupré, J., McIver, A., Oliphant, L., Rosair, G. M., & Otto, S. (2006). Supramolecular Binding of Protonated Amines to Functionalized Microgel Particles. Polymer Preprints, 47(2), 937-938.


Vial, L., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2005). A catalyst for an acetal hydrolysis reaction from a dynamic combinatorial library. New Journal of Chemistry, 29(8).
Lam, R. T. S., Belenguer, A., Roberts, S. L., Naumann, C., Jarrosson, T., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2005). Amplification of Acetylcholine-Binding Catenanes from Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Science, 308(5722).
Pascu, S. I., Jarrosson, T., Naumann, C., Otto, S., Kaiser, G., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2005). Cation-reinforced donor-acceptor pseudorotaxanes. New Journal of Chemistry, 29(1).
Corbett, P. T., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2005). Competition between Receptors in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: Amplification of the Fittest? Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127(26).
Corbett, P. T., Tong, L. H., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2005). Diastereoselective Amplification of an Induced-Fit Receptor from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127(25).
West, K. R., Bake, K. D., & Otto, S. (2005). Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries of Disulfide Cages in Water. Organic letters, 7(13).
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