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Otto, Prof. Sijbren

Sijbren Otto
Sijbren Otto

Sijbren Otto is Professor of Systems Chemistry. He studies ‘chemical evolution’. His research group developed a model system of molecules that can make copies of themselves, and showed that diversity can also occur as a result of the mutation of replicators.

Up to now, chemistry research has primarily focused on developing stable systems. But biological systems depend on development and decay, on synthesis and degradation, and on the succession of life and death. Sijbren Otto wants to know whether these biological principles can also be applied to synthetic chemistry. Self-assembling and self-replicating macromolecules play an important role in that process. Synthetic chemical systems of such molecules could also undergo a Darwinian type of evolution. A first step towards synthesized life, Otto

In 2017, he was awarded a prestigious € 2.5 million ERC grant to investigate the possibilities of synthesizing life de-novo in the lab. Otto hopes to take the next steps to bridge the gap between chemistry and biology by building fully synthetic systems. These systems have the essential elements of life: replication, metabolism and compartmentalization. Up to now, it has not been possible to integrate these characteristics in a fully synthetic system. In 2020, Otto was appointed a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW).

In 2021, Otto was awarded the James Flack Norris Award in Physical Organic Chemistry of the American Chemical Society for his leading contribution to establishing the field of systems chemistry. Besides Sijbren Otto, Ben Feringa is the only Dutch scientist that has received this award (in 2007).

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Volkskrant article
Volkskrant article

2022

Otto, S. (2022). An Approach to the de Novo Synthesis of Life. Accounts of Chemical Research, 55(2), 145-155. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.1c00534
Hatai, J., Altay, Y., Sood, A., Kiani, A., Eleveld, M. J., Motiei, L., Margulies, D., & Otto, S. (2022). An Optical Probe for Real-Time Monitoring of Self-Replicator Emergence and Distinguishing between Replicators. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 144(7), 3074-3082. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c11594
Liu, B., Wu, J., Geerts, M., Markovitch, O., Pappas, C. G., Liu, K., & Otto, S. (2022). Out-of-equilibrium self-replication allows selection for dynamic kinetic stability in a system of competing replicators. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 61(18), [e202117605]. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202117605
Schaeffer, G., Eleveld, M. J., Ottele, J., Kroon, P. C., Frederix, P. W. J. M., Yang, S., & Otto, S. (2022). Stochastic Emergence of Two Distinct Self-Replicators from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 144(14), 6291-6297. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c12591

2021

Yang, S., Schaeffer, G., Mattia, E., Markovitch, O., Liu, K., Hussain, A. S., Ottelé, J., Sood, A., & Otto, S. (2021). Chemical Fueling Enables Molecular Complexification of Self-Replicators**. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 60(20), 11344-11349. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202016196
Liu, B., Beatty, M. A., Pappas, C. G., Liu, K., Ottelé, J., & Otto, S. (2021). Self-Sorting in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries Leads to the Co-Existence of Foldamers and Self-Replicators. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 60(24), 13569-13573. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202101052
Komáromy, D., Tiemersma-Wegman, T., Kemmink, J., Portale, G., Adamski, P. R., Blokhuis, A., Aalbers, F. S., Marić, I., Santiago, G. M., Ottelé, J., Sood, A., Saggiomo, V., Liu, B., van der Meulen, P., & Otto, S. (2021). Stoichiometry alone can steer supramolecular systems on complex free energy surfaces with high selectivity. Chem, 7(7), 1933-1951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chempr.2021.05.020
Pappas, C. G., Liu, B., Marić, I., Ottelé, J., Kiani, A., van der Klok, M. L., Onck, P. R., & Otto, S. (2021). Two Sides of the Same Coin: Emergence of Foldamers and Self-Replicators from Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 143(19), 7388–7393. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c00788

2020

Markovitch, O., Ottele, J., Veldman, O., & Otto, S. (2020). Automated device for continuous stirring while sampling in liquid chromatography systems. Communications chemistry, 3(1), [180]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42004-020-00427-5
Maity, S., Ottelé, J., Santiago, G. M., Frederix, P. W. J. M., Kroon, P., Markovitch, O., Stuart, M. C. A., Marrink, S. J., Otto, S., & Roos, W. H. (2020). Caught in the Act: Mechanistic Insight into Supramolecular Polymerization-Driven Self-Replication from Real-Time Visualization. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 142(32), 13709-13717. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c02635
Ottelé, J., Hussain, A. S., Mayer, C., & Otto, S. (2020). Chance emergence of catalytic activity and promiscuity in a self-replicator. Nature Catalysis, 3(7), 547-553. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41929-020-0463-8
Markovitch, O., Kramer, B. H., Weissing, F. J., van Doorn, G. S., & Otto, S. (2020). Competition dynamics in a chemical system of self-replicating macrocycles. In J. Bongard, J. Lovato, L. Hebert-Dufrésne, R. Dasari, & L. Soros (Eds.), Artificial Life Conference Proceedings (Vol. 32, pp. 462-464). MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.1162/isal_a_00289
Monreal Santiago, G., Liu, K., Browne, W. R., & Otto, S. (2020). Emergence of light-driven protometabolism on recruitment of a photocatalytic cofactor by a self-replicator. Nature Chemistry, 12(7), 603-607. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41557-020-0494-4
Pappas, C. G., Mandal, P. K., Liu, B., Kauffmann, B., Miao, X., Komáromy, D., Hoffmann, W., Manz, C., Chang, R., Liu, K., Pagel, K., Huc, I., & Otto, S. (2020). Emergence of low-symmetry foldamers from single monomers. Nature Chemistry, 12(12), 1180-1186. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41557-020-00565-2
Adamski, P., Eleveld, M., Sood, A., Kun, Á., Szilágyi, A., Czárán, T., Szathmáry, E., & Otto, S. (2020). From self-replication to replicator systems en route to de novo life. Nature reviews chemistry, 4(8), 386-403. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41570-020-0196-x
Liu, B., Pappas, C. G., Ottelé, J., Schaeffer, G., Jurissek, C., Pieters, P. F., Altay, M., Marić, I., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2020). Spontaneous Emergence of Self-Replicating Molecules Containing Nucleobases and Amino Acids. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 142(9), 4184-4192. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b10796

2019

Liu, B., Pappas, C. G., Zangrando, E., Demitri, N., Chmielewski, P. J., & Otto, S. (2019). Complex Molecules That Fold Like Proteins Can Emerge Spontaneously. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 141(4), 1685-1689. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.8b11698
Malakoutikhah, M., Schaeffer, G., Monreal Santiago, G., Yang, S., Maric, I., & Otto, S. (2019). Cross-Catalysis between Self-Replicators of Different Handedness. Journal of Systems Chemistry, 7(1).
Bartolec, B., Leonetti, G., Li, J., Smit, W., Altay, M., Monreal Santiago, G., Yan, Y., & Otto, S. (2019). Emergence of Compartments Formed from Unconventional Surfactants in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Langmuir, 35(17), 5787-5792. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b03662

2018

Altay, Y., Altay, M., & Otto, S. (2018). Existing Self-Replicators Can Direct the Emergence of New Ones. Chemistry, 24(46), 11911-11915. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201803027
Altay, M., Altay, Y., & Otto, S. (2018). Parasitic Behavior of Self-Replicating Molecules. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 57(33), 10564-10568. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201804706
Bartolec, B., Altay, M., & Otto, S. (2018). Template-promoted self-replication in dynamic combinatorial libraries made from a simple building block. Chemical Communications, 54(93), 13096-13098. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8cc06253f

2017

Matysiak, B. M., Nowak, P., Cvrtila, I., Pappas, C. G., Liu, B., Komaromy, D., & Otto, S. (2017). Antiparallel Dynamic Covalent Chemistries. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(19), 6744-6751. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b02575
van Esch, J. H., Klajn, R., & Otto, S. (2017). Chemical systems out of equilibrium. Chemical Society Reviews, 46(18), 5474-5475. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7cs90088k
Komáromy, D., Tezcan, M., Schaeffer, G., Marić, I., & Otto, S. (2017). Effector-Triggered Self-Replication in Coupled Subsystems. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 56(46), 14658-14662. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201707191
Altay, Y., Tezcan, M., & Otto, S. (2017). Emergence of a New Self-Replicator from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library Requires a Specific Pre-Existing Replicator. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(39), 13612-13615. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b07346
Mattia, E., Pal, A., Leonetti, G., & Otto, S. (2017). Mechanism of Building Block Exchange in Stacks of Self-Replicating Macrocycles. Synlett, 28(1), 103-107. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1589709
Otto, S. (2017). Reaction: Thinking-Species Chemistry and the World's Problems. Chem, 2(2), 158-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chempr.2017.01.018
Cvrtila, I., Fanlo-Virgos, H., Schaeffer, G., Santiago, G. M., & Otto, S. (2017). Redox Control over Acyl Hydrazone Photoswitches. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(36), 12459-12465. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b03724
Komaromy, D., Stuart, M. C. A., Monréal Santiago, G., Tezcan, M., Krasnikov, V. V., & Otto, S. (2017). Self-Assembly Can Direct Dynamic Covalent Bond Formation Towards Diversity or Specificity. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(17), 6234-6241. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b01814
Frederix, P. W. J. M., Idé, J., Altay, Y., Schaeffer, G., Surin, M., Beljonne, D., Bondarenko, A. S., Jansen, T. L. C., Otto, S., & Marrink, S. J. (2017). Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of Assemblies of Self-Replicating Peptide Macrocycles. Acs Nano, 11(8), 7858-7868. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.7b02211
Ashkenasy, G., Hermans, T. M., Otto, S., & Taylor, A. F. (2017). Systems chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews, 46(9), 2543-2554. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7cs00117g
Duim, H., & Otto, S. (2017). Towards open-ended evolution in self-replicating molecular systems. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, 13, 1189-1203. https://doi.org/10.3762/bjoc.13.118

2016

Sadownik, J. W., Mattia, E., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2016). Diversification of self-replicating molecules. Nature Chemistry, 8(3), 264-269. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.2419
Mondal, M., Radeva, N., Fanlo-Virgos, H., Otto, S., Klebe, G., & Hirsch, A. K. H. (2016). Fragment Linking and Optimization of Inhibitors of the Aspartic Protease Endothiapepsin: Fragment-Based Drug Design Facilitated by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 55(32), 9422-9426. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201603074
Nguyen, V. D., Pal, A., Snijkers, F., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Leonetti, G., Otto, S., & van der Gucht, J. (2016). Multi-step control over self-assembled hydrogels of peptide-derived building blocks and a polymeric cross-linker. Soft Matter, 12(2), 432-440. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5sm02088c

2015

Li, J., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2015). An Allosteric Receptor by Simultaneous "Casting" and "Molding" in a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 54(3), 833-837. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201408907
Pal, A., Malakoutikhah, M., Leonetti, G., Tezcan, M., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Nguyen, V. D., van der Gucht, J., & Otto, S. (2015). Controlling the Structure and Length of Self-Synthesizing Supramolecular Polymers through Nucleated Growth and Disassembly. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 54(27), 7852-7856. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201501965
Colomb-Delsuc, M., Mattia, E., Sadownik, J. W., & Otto, S. (2015). Exponential self-replication enabled through a fibre elongation/breakage mechanism. Nature Communications, 6, [7427]. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8427
Han, Y., Nowak, P., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Leal, M. P., & Otto, S. (2015). Instructable Nanoparticles Using Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. Langmuir, 31(46), 12658-12663. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b03673
Nowak, P., Saggiomo, V., Salehian, F., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Han, Y., & Otto, S. (2015). Localized Template-Driven Functionalization of Nanoparticles by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 54(14), 4192-4197. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201409667
Leonetti, G., & Otto, S. (2015). Solvent Composition Dictates Emergence in Dynamic Molecular Networks Containing Competing Replicators. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137(5), 2067-2072. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja512644f
Mattia, E., & Otto, S. (2015). Supramolecular systems chemistry. Nature Nanotechnology, 10(2), 111-119. https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2014.337
Nowak, P., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Otto, S., & Li, J. (2015). Template-Triggered Emergence of a Self-Replicator from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137(34), 10965-10969. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5b04380

2014

Li, J., Cvrtila, I., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Otten, E., & Otto, S. (2014). An "Ingredients" Approach to Functional Self-Synthesizing Materials: A Metal-Ion-Selective, Multi-Responsive, Self-Assembled Hydrogel. Chemistry, 20(48), 15709-15714. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201404977
Li, J., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2014). Catenanes from catenanes: quantitative assessment of cooperativity in dynamic combinatorial catenation. Chemical Science, 5(12), 4968-4974. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4sc01998a
Grzybowski, B., Otto, S., & Philp, D. (2014). Systems chemistry: A web themed issue. Chemical Communications, 50(95), 14924-14925. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4cc90422b
Fanlo-Virgos, H., Alba, A-N. R., Hamieh, S., Colomb-Delsuc, M., & Otto, S. (2014). Transient Substrate-Induced Catalyst Formation in a Dynamic Molecular Network. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 53(42), 11346-11350. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201403480

2013

Hamieh, S., Saggiomo, V., Nowak, P., Mattia, E., Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2013). A "Dial-A-Receptor" Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 52(47), 12368-12372. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201305744
Li, J., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2013). Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: From Exploring Molecular Recognition to Systems Chemistry. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135(25), 9222-9239. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja402586c
Rombouts, W. H., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Werten, M. W. T., Otto, S., de Wolf, F. A., & van der Gucht, J. (2013). Enhanced rigidity and rupture strength of composite hydrogel networks of bio-inspired block copolymers. Soft Matter, 9(29), 6936-6942. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3sm00091e
Saggiomo, V., Hristova, Y. R., Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2013). Systems chemistry: using thermodynamically controlled networks to assess molecular similarity. Journal of Systems Chemistry, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.1186/1759-2208-4-2
Otto, S. (2013). The role of solvent cohesion in nonpolar solvation. Chemical Science, 4(7), 2953-2959. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3sc50740h
Malakoutikhah, M., Peyralans, J. J-P., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Fanlo-Virgós, H., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2013). Uncovering the selection criteria for the emergence of multi-building-block replicators from dynamic combinatorial libraries. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135(49), 18406-18417. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja4067805

2012

Hamieh, S., Ludlow, R. F., Perraud, O., West, K. R., Mattia, E., & Otto, S. (2012). A Synthetic Receptor for Nicotine from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Organic letters, 14(21), 5404-5407. https://doi.org/10.1021/ol302260n
Otto, S. (2012). Dynamic Molecular Networks: From Synthetic Receptors to Self-Replicators. Accounts of Chemical Research, 45(12), 2200-2210. https://doi.org/10.1021/ar200246j
Wang, J., Stuart, M. A. C., Marcelis, A. T. M., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Otto, S., & van der Gucht, J. (2012). Stable Polymer Micelles Formed by Metal Coordination. Macromolecules, 45(17), 7179-7185. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma301323z
Saggiomo, V., Otto, S., Marques, I., Felix, V., Torroba, T., & Quesada, R. (2012). The role of lipophilicity in transmembrane anion transport. Chemical Communications, 48(43), 5274-5276. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2cc31825c

2011

Rodriguez-Docampo, Z., Eugenieva-Ilieva, E., Reyheller, C., Belenguer, A. M., Kubik, S., & Otto, S. (2011). Dynamic combinatorial development of a neutral synthetic receptor that binds sulfate with nanomolar affinity in aqueous solution. Chemical Communications, 47(35), 9798-9800. https://doi.org/10.1039/c1cc13451e
Hunt, R. A. R., Otto, S., & Hunt, R. A. R. (2011). Dynamic combinatorial libraries: new opportunities in systems chemistry. Chemical Communications, 47(3), 847-858. https://doi.org/10.1039/c0cc03759a
Li, J., Carnall, J. M. A., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2011). Hydrogel Formation upon Photoinduced Covalent Capture of Macrocycle Stacks from Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 50(36), 8384-8386. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201103297

2010

Besenius, P., Cormack, P. A. G., Ludlow, R. F., Otto, S., & Sherrington, D. C. (2010). Affinity chromatography in dynamic combinatorial libraries: one-pot amplification and isolation of a strongly binding receptor. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 8(10), 2414-2418. https://doi.org/10.1039/c000333f
Mansfeld, F. M., Au-Yeung, H. Y., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2010). Dynamic combinatorial chemistry at the phospholipid bilayer interface. Journal of Systems Chemistry, 1(12). https://doi.org/10.1186/1759-2208-1-12
Au-Yeung, H. Y., Cougnon, F. B. L., Otto, S., Pantos, G. D., Sanders, J. K. M., & Pantoş, G. D. (2010). Exploiting donor-acceptor interactions in aqueous dynamic combinatorial libraries: exploratory studies of simple systems. Chemical Science, 1(5), 567-574. https://doi.org/10.1039/c0sc00307g
Carnall, J. M. A., Waudby, C. A., Belenguer, A. M., Stuart, M. C. A., Peyralans, J. J. -P., & Otto, S. (2010). Mechanosensitive Self-Replication Driven by Self-Organization. Science, 327(5972), 1502-1506. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1182767
Otto, S. (2010). MOLECULAR MACHINES Tiny steps: Tiny steps. Nature Chemistry, 2(2), 75-76. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.525
Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2010). The Impact of the Size of Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries on the Detectability of Molecular Recognition Induced Amplification. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132(17), 5984-+. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja1013689
Otto, S. (2010). The Practice of Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: Analytical Chemistry, Experimental Design, and Data Analysis. In S. Otto, & J. N. H. Reek (Eds.), Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry (pp. 23-47).
Otto, S., & Reek, J. N. H. (2010). Trends and Perspectives. In S. Otto, & J. N. H. Reek (Eds.), Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry (pp. 185-194).
Kiedrowski, G. V., Otto, S., & Herdewijn, P. (2010). Welcome Home, Systems Chemists! Journal of Systems Chemistry, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1759-2208-1-1

2009

Likhitsup, A., Deeth, R. J., Otto, S., & Marsh, A. (2009). Apparent non-statistical binding in a ditopic receptor for guanosine. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 7(10), 2093-2103. https://doi.org/10.1039/b812969j
Hunt, R. A. R., Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2009). Estimating equilibrium constants for aggregation from the product distribution of a dynamic combinatorial library. Organic letters, 11(22), 5110-5113. https://doi.org/10.1021/ol901656x
Otto, S. (2009). MOLECULAR SELF-ASSEMBLY Helping themselves. Nature Nanotechnology, 4(1), 13-14. https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2008.387
Mansfeld, F. M., Feng, G., & Otto, S. (2009). Photo-induced molecular-recognition-mediated adhesion of giant vesicles. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 7(20), 4289-4295. https://doi.org/10.1039/b910197g
Peyralans, J. J. P., & Otto, S. (2009). Recent highlights in systems chemistry. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 13(5-6), 705-713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.08.006
Au-Yeung, H. Y., Pengo, P., Pantoş, G. D., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2009). Templated amplification of a naphthalenediimide-based receptor from a donor–acceptor dynamic combinatorial library in water. Chemical Communications, 419-421. https://doi.org/10.1039/b816979a

2008

West, K. R., Ludlow, R. F., Corbett, P. T., Besenius, P., Mansfeld, F. M., Cormack, P. A. G., Sherrington, D. C., Goodman, J. M., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2008). Dynamic combinatorial discovery of a [2]-catenane and its guest-induced conversion into a molecular square host. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(33), 10834-+. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja801508q
Corbett, P. T., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2008). Exploring the Relation between Amplification and Binding in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries of Macrocyclic Synthetic Receptors in Water. Chemistry, 14(7). https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.200701413
Rodriguez-Docampo, Z., & Otto, S. (2008). Orthogonal or simultaneous use of disulfide and hydrazone exchange in dynamic covalent chemistry in aqueous solution. Chemical Communications, 41(42), 5301-5303. https://doi.org/10.1039/b808725c
Besenius, P., Cormack, P. A. G., Ludlow, R. F., Otto, S., & Sherrington, D. C. (2008). Polymer-supported cationic templates for molecular recognition of anionic hosts in water. Chemical Communications, 2(24). https://doi.org/10.1039/b802982b
Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2008). Systems chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews, 37. https://doi.org/10.1039/b611921m
Besenius, P., Cormack, P. A. G., Liu, J., Otto, S., Sanders, J. K. M., & Sherrington, D. C. (2008). Tailored Polymer-Supported Templates in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: Simultaneous Selection, Amplification and Isolation of Synthetic Receptors. Chemistry, 14(29). https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.200800326
Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2008). Two-vial, LC-MS identification of ephedrine receptors from a solution-phase dynamic combinatorial library of over 9000 components. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(37), 12218-+. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja803317k

2007

Sarma, R. J., Otto, S., & Nitschke, J. R. (2007). Disulfides, Imines, and Metal Coordination within a Single System: Interplay between Three Dynamic Equilibria. Chemistry, 13(34). https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.200701228
Otto, S., & Severin, K. (2007). Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries for the Development of Synthetic Receptors and Sensors. In T. Schrader (Ed.), Creative Chemical Sensor Systems (277 ed., pp. 267-288). (Topics in Current Chemistry; No. 277).
Ludlow, R. F., Liu, J., Li, H., Roberts, S. L., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2007). Host–Guest Binding Constants Can Be Estimated Directly from the Product Distributions of Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 4G, 5762-5764. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200700292
Corbett, P. T., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2007). Systems Chemistry: Pattern Formation in Random Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Angewandte Chemie, 119(46). https://doi.org/10.1002/ange.200702460

2006

Vial, L., Ludlow, R. F., Leclaire, J., Pérez-Fernández, R., & Otto, S. (2006). Controlling the Biological Effects of Spermine Using a Synthetic Receptor. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128(31), 10253-10257. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja062536b
Suksai, C., Figueiras Gómez, S., Chhabra, A., Liu, J., Skepper, J. N., Tuntulani, T., & Otto, S. (2006). Controlling the Morphology of Aggregates of an Amphiphilic Synthetic Receptor through Host-Guest Interactions. Langmuir, 22(14). https://doi.org/10.1021/la0609470
Corbett, P. T., Leclaire, J., Vial, L., West, K. R., Wietor, J-L., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2006). Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. ChemInform, 37(48), 3652-3711. https://doi.org/10.1002/chin.200648268
Pengo, P., Pantoş, G. D., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2006). Efficient and Mild Microwave-Assisted Stepwise Functionalization of Naphthalenediimide with α-Amino Acids. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 71(18). https://doi.org/10.1021/jo061195h
Rodriguez-Docampo, Z., Pascu, S. I., Kubik, S., & Otto, S. (2006). Noncovalent Interactions within a Synthetic Receptor Can Reinforce Guest Binding. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128(34). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja062389h
Otto, S. (2006). Reinforced molecular recognition as an alternative to rigid receptors. Dalton Transactions, 400(23), 2861-2864. https://doi.org/10.1039/b515817f
Kraft, A., Tominey, A., Andrew, D., Dupré, J., McIver, A., Oliphant, L., Rosair, G. M., & Otto, S. (2006). Supramolecular Binding of Protonated Amines to Functionalized Microgel Particles. Polymer Preprints, 47(2), 937-938.

2005

Vial, L., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2005). A catalyst for an acetal hydrolysis reaction from a dynamic combinatorial library. New Journal of Chemistry, 29(8). https://doi.org/10.1039/b505316a
Lam, R. T. S., Belenguer, A., Roberts, S. L., Naumann, C., Jarrosson, T., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2005). Amplification of Acetylcholine-Binding Catenanes from Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Science, 308(5722). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1109999
Pascu, S. I., Jarrosson, T., Naumann, C., Otto, S., Kaiser, G., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2005). Cation-reinforced donor-acceptor pseudorotaxanes. New Journal of Chemistry, 29(1). https://doi.org/10.1039/b415418e
Corbett, P. T., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2005). Competition between Receptors in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: Amplification of the Fittest? Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127(26). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja0509026
Corbett, P. T., Tong, L. H., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2005). Diastereoselective Amplification of an Induced-Fit Receptor from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127(25). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja050790i
West, K. R., Bake, K. D., & Otto, S. (2005). Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries of Disulfide Cages in Water. Organic letters, 7(13). https://doi.org/10.1021/ol0507524
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