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Otto, Prof. Sijbren

Sijbren Otto
Sijbren Otto

Sijbren Otto is Professor of Systems Chemistry. He studies ‘chemical evolution’. His research group developed a model system of molecules that can make copies of themselves, and showed that diversity can also occur as a result of the mutation of replicators.

Up to now, chemistry research has primarily focused on developing stable systems. But biological systems depend on development and decay, on synthesis and degradation, and on the succession of life and death. Sijbren Otto wants to know whether these biological principles can also be applied to synthetic chemistry. Self-assembling and self-replicating macromolecules play an important role in that process. Synthetic chemical systems of such molecules could also undergo a Darwinian type of evolution. A first step towards synthesized life, Otto

In 2017, he was awarded a prestigious € 2.5 million ERC grant to investigate the possibilities of synthesizing life de-novo in the lab. Otto hopes to take the next steps to bridge the gap between chemistry and biology by building fully synthetic systems. These systems have the essential elements of life: replication, metabolism and compartmentalization. Up to now, it has not been possible to integrate these characteristics in a fully synthetic system.

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Volkskrant article
Volkskrant article

2020

Liu, B., Pappas, C. G., Ottelé, J., Schaeffer, G., Jurissek, C., Pieters, P. F., ... Otto, S. (2020). Spontaneous Emergence of Self-Replicating Molecules Containing Nucleobases and Amino Acids. Journal of the American Chemical Society. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b10796

2019

Bartolec, B., Leonetti, G., Li, J., Smit, W., Altay, M., Monreal Santiago, G., ... Otto, S. (2019). Emergence of Compartments Formed from Unconventional Surfactants in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Langmuir, 35(17), 5787-5792. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b03662
Liu, B., Pappas, C. G., Zangrando, E., Demitri, N., Chmielewski, P. J., & Otto, S. (2019). Complex Molecules That Fold Like Proteins Can Emerge Spontaneously. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 141(4), 1685-1689. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.8b11698
Malakoutikhah, M., Schaeffer, G., Monreal Santiago, G., Yang, S., Maric, I., & Otto, S. (2019). Cross-Catalysis between Self-Replicators of Different Handedness. Journal of Systems Chemistry, 7(1).

2018

Bartolec, B., Altay, M., & Otto, S. (2018). Template-promoted self-replication in dynamic combinatorial libraries made from a simple building block. Chemical Communications, 54(93), 13096-13098. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8cc06253f
Altay, Y., Altay, M., & Otto, S. (2018). Existing Self-Replicators Can Direct the Emergence of New Ones. Chemistry, 24(46), 11911-11915. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201803027
Altay, M., Altay, Y., & Otto, S. (2018). Parasitic Behavior of Self-Replicating Molecules. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 57(33), 10564-10568. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201804706

2017

Komáromy, D., Tezcan, M., Schaeffer, G., Marić, I., & Otto, S. (2017). Effector-Triggered Self-Replication in Coupled Subsystems. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 56(46), 14658-14662. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201707191
van Esch, J. H., Klajn, R., & Otto, S. (2017). Chemical systems out of equilibrium. Chemical Society Reviews, 46(18), 5474-5475. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7cs90088k
Cvrtila, I., Fanlo-Virgos, H., Schaeffer, G., Santiago, G. M., & Otto, S. (2017). Redox Control over Acyl Hydrazone Photoswitches. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(36), 12459-12465. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b03724
Altay, Y., Tezcan, M., & Otto, S. (2017). Emergence of a New Self-Replicator from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library Requires a Specific Pre-Existing Replicator. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(39), 13612-13615. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b07346
Frederix, P. W. J. M., Idé, J., Altay, Y., Schaeffer, G., Surin, M., Beljonne, D., ... Marrink, S. J. (2017). Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of Assemblies of Self-Replicating Peptide Macrocycles. Acs Nano, 11(8), 7858-7868. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.7b02211
Duim, H., & Otto, S. (2017). Towards open-ended evolution in self-replicating molecular systems. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, 13, 1189-1203. https://doi.org/10.3762/bjoc.13.118
Matysiak, B. M., Nowak, P., Cvrtila, I., Pappas, C. G., Liu, B., Komaromy, D., & Otto, S. (2017). Antiparallel Dynamic Covalent Chemistries. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(19), 6744-6751. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b02575
Ashkenasy, G., Hermans, T. M., Otto, S., & Taylor, A. F. (2017). Systems chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews, 46(9), 2543-2554. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7cs00117g
Komaromy, D., Stuart, M. C. A., Monréal Santiago, G., Tezcan, M., Krasnikov, V. V., & Otto, S. (2017). Self-Assembly Can Direct Dynamic Covalent Bond Formation Towards Diversity or Specificity. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(17), 6234-6241. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b01814
Otto, S. (2017). Reaction: Thinking-Species Chemistry and the World's Problems. Chem, 2(2), 158-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chempr.2017.01.018
Mattia, E., Pal, A., Leonetti, G., & Otto, S. (2017). Mechanism of Building Block Exchange in Stacks of Self-Replicating Macrocycles. Synlett, 28(1), 103-107. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1589709

2016

Mondal, M., Radeva, N., Fanlo-Virgos, H., Otto, S., Klebe, G., & Hirsch, A. K. H. (2016). Fragment Linking and Optimization of Inhibitors of the Aspartic Protease Endothiapepsin: Fragment-Based Drug Design Facilitated by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 55(32), 9422-9426. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201603074
Nguyen, V. D., Pal, A., Snijkers, F., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Leonetti, G., Otto, S., & van der Gucht, J. (2016). Multi-step control over self-assembled hydrogels of peptide-derived building blocks and a polymeric cross-linker. Soft Matter, 12(2), 432-440. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5sm02088c
Sadownik, J. W., Mattia, E., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2016). Diversification of self-replicating molecules. Nature Chemistry, 8(3), 264-269. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.2419

2015

Han, Y., Nowak, P., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Leal, M. P., & Otto, S. (2015). Instructable Nanoparticles Using Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. Langmuir, 31(46), 12658-12663. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b03673
Nowak, P., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Otto, S., & Li, J. (2015). Template-Triggered Emergence of a Self-Replicator from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137(34), 10965-10969. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5b04380
Pal, A., Malakoutikhah, M., Leonetti, G., Tezcan, M., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Nguyen, V. D., ... Otto, S. (2015). Controlling the Structure and Length of Self-Synthesizing Supramolecular Polymers through Nucleated Growth and Disassembly. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 54(27), 7852-7856. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201501965
Nowak, P., Saggiomo, V., Salehian, F., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Han, Y., & Otto, S. (2015). Localized Template-Driven Functionalization of Nanoparticles by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 54(14), 4192-4197. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201409667
Leonetti, G., & Otto, S. (2015). Solvent Composition Dictates Emergence in Dynamic Molecular Networks Containing Competing Replicators. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137(5), 2067-2072. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja512644f
Mattia, E., & Otto, S. (2015). Supramolecular systems chemistry. Nature Nanotechnology, 10(2), 111-119. https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2014.337
Li, J., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2015). An Allosteric Receptor by Simultaneous "Casting" and "Molding" in a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 54(3), 833-837. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201408907
Colomb-Delsuc, M., Mattia, E., Sadownik, J. W., & Otto, S. (2015). Exponential self-replication enabled through a fibre elongation/breakage mechanism. Nature Communications, 6, [7427]. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8427

2014

Li, J., Cvrtila, I., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Otten, E., & Otto, S. (2014). An "Ingredients" Approach to Functional Self-Synthesizing Materials: A Metal-Ion-Selective, Multi-Responsive, Self-Assembled Hydrogel. Chemistry, 20(48), 15709-15714. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201404977
Fanlo-Virgos, H., Alba, A-N. R., Hamieh, S., Colomb-Delsuc, M., & Otto, S. (2014). Transient Substrate-Induced Catalyst Formation in a Dynamic Molecular Network. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 53(42), 11346-11350. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201403480
Li, J., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2014). Catenanes from catenanes: quantitative assessment of cooperativity in dynamic combinatorial catenation. Chemical Science, 5(12), 4968-4974. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4sc01998a
Grzybowski, B., Otto, S., & Philp, D. (2014). Systems chemistry: a web themed issue. Chemical Communications, 50(95), 14924-14925. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4cc90422b

2013

Malakoutikhah, M., Peyralans, J. J-P., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Fanlo-Virgós, H., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2013). Uncovering the selection criteria for the emergence of multi-building-block replicators from dynamic combinatorial libraries. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135(49), 18406-18417. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja4067805
Hamieh, S., Saggiomo, V., Nowak, P., Mattia, E., Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2013). A "Dial-A-Receptor" Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 52(47), 12368-12372. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201305744
Li, J., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2013). Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: From Exploring Molecular Recognition to Systems Chemistry. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135(25), 9222-9239. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja402586c
Otto, S. (2013). The role of solvent cohesion in nonpolar solvation. Chemical Science, 4(7), 2953-2959. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3sc50740h
Saggiomo, V., Hristova, Y. R., Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2013). Systems chemistry: using thermodynamically controlled networks to assess molecular similarity. Journal of Systems Chemistry, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.1186/1759-2208-4-2
Rombouts, W. H., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Werten, M. W. T., Otto, S., de Wolf, F. A., & van der Gucht, J. (2013). Enhanced rigidity and rupture strength of composite hydrogel networks of bio-inspired block copolymers. Soft Matter, 9(29), 6936-6942. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3sm00091e

2012

Otto, S. (2012). Dynamic Molecular Networks: From Synthetic Receptors to Self-Replicators. Accounts of Chemical Research, 45(12), 2200-2210. https://doi.org/10.1021/ar200246j
Hamieh, S., Ludlow, R. F., Perraud, O., West, K. R., Mattia, E., & Otto, S. (2012). A Synthetic Receptor for Nicotine from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Organic letters, 14(21), 5404-5407. https://doi.org/10.1021/ol302260n
Wang, J., Stuart, M. A. C., Marcelis, A. T. M., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Otto, S., & van der Gucht, J. (2012). Stable Polymer Micelles Formed by Metal Coordination. Macromolecules, 45(17), 7179-7185. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma301323z
Saggiomo, V., Otto, S., Marques, I., Felix, V., Torroba, T., & Quesada, R. (2012). The role of lipophilicity in transmembrane anion transport. Chemical Communications, 48(43), 5274-5276. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2cc31825c

2011

Rodriguez-Docampo, Z., Eugenieva-Ilieva, E., Reyheller, C., Belenguer, A. M., Kubik, S., & Otto, S. (2011). Dynamic combinatorial development of a neutral synthetic receptor that binds sulfate with nanomolar affinity in aqueous solution. Chemical Communications, 47(35), 9798-9800. https://doi.org/10.1039/c1cc13451e
Hunt, R. A. R., Otto, S., & Hunt, R. A. R. (2011). Dynamic combinatorial libraries: new opportunities in systems chemistry. Chemical Communications, 47(3), 847-858. https://doi.org/10.1039/c0cc03759a
Li, J., Carnall, J. M. A., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2011). Hydrogel Formation upon Photoinduced Covalent Capture of Macrocycle Stacks from Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 50(36), 8384-8386. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201103297

2010

Mansfeld, F. M., Au-Yeung, H. Y., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2010). Dynamic combinatorial chemistry at the phospholipid bilayer interface. Journal of Systems Chemistry, 1(12). https://doi.org/10.1186/1759-2208-1-12
Au-Yeung, H. Y., Cougnon, F. B. L., Otto, S., Pantos, G. D., Sanders, J. K. M., & Pantoş, G. D. (2010). Exploiting donor-acceptor interactions in aqueous dynamic combinatorial libraries: exploratory studies of simple systems. Chemical Science, 1(5), 567-574. https://doi.org/10.1039/c0sc00307g
Kiedrowski, G. V., Otto, S., & Herdewijn, P. (2010). Welcome Home, Systems Chemists! Journal of Systems Chemistry, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1759-2208-1-1
Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2010). The Impact of the Size of Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries on the Detectability of Molecular Recognition Induced Amplification. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132(17), 5984-+. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja1013689
Carnall, J. M. A., Waudby, C. A., Belenguer, A. M., Stuart, M. C. A., Peyralans, J. J. -P., & Otto, S. (2010). Mechanosensitive Self-Replication Driven by Self-Organization. Science, 327(5972), 1502-1506. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1182767
Otto, S. (2010). MOLECULAR MACHINES Tiny steps: Tiny steps. Nature Chemistry, 2(2), 75-76. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.525
Besenius, P., Cormack, P. A. G., Ludlow, R. F., Otto, S., & Sherrington, D. C. (2010). Affinity chromatography in dynamic combinatorial libraries: one-pot amplification and isolation of a strongly binding receptor. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 8(10), 2414-2418. https://doi.org/10.1039/c000333f
Otto, S. (2010). The Practice of Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: Analytical Chemistry, Experimental Design, and Data Analysis. In S. Otto, & J. N. H. Reek (Eds.), Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry (pp. 23-47). Weinheim, Germany.
Otto, S., & Reek, J. N. H. (2010). Trends and Perspectives. In S. Otto, & J. N. H. Reek (Eds.), Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry (pp. 185-194). Weinheim, Germany.

2009

Peyralans, J. J. P., & Otto, S. (2009). Recent highlights in systems chemistry. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 13(5-6), 705-713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.08.006
Hunt, R. A. R., Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2009). Estimating equilibrium constants for aggregation from the product distribution of a dynamic combinatorial library. Organic letters, 11(22), 5110-5113. https://doi.org/10.1021/ol901656x
Otto, S. (2009). MOLECULAR SELF-ASSEMBLY Helping themselves. Nature Nanotechnology, 4(1), 13-14. https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2008.387
Likhitsup, A., Deeth, R. J., Otto, S., & Marsh, A. (2009). Apparent non-statistical binding in a ditopic receptor for guanosine. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 7(10), 2093-2103. https://doi.org/10.1039/b812969j
Mansfeld, F. M., Feng, G., & Otto, S. (2009). Photo-induced molecular-recognition-mediated adhesion of giant vesicles. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 7(20), 4289-4295. https://doi.org/10.1039/b910197g
Au-Yeung, H. Y., Pengo, P., Pantoş, G. D., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2009). Templated amplification of a naphthalenediimide-based receptor from a donor–acceptor dynamic combinatorial library in water. Chemical Communications, 419-421. https://doi.org/10.1039/b816979a

2008

Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2008). Two-vial, LC-MS identification of ephedrine receptors from a solution-phase dynamic combinatorial library of over 9000 components. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(37), 12218-+. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja803317k
West, K. R., Ludlow, R. F., Corbett, P. T., Besenius, P., Mansfeld, F. M., Cormack, P. A. G., ... Otto, S. (2008). Dynamic combinatorial discovery of a [2]-catenane and its guest-induced conversion into a molecular square host. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(33), 10834-+. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja801508q
Corbett, P. T., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2008). Exploring the Relation between Amplification and Binding in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries of Macrocyclic Synthetic Receptors in Water. Chemistry, 14(7). https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.200701413
Rodriguez-Docampo, Z., & Otto, S. (2008). Orthogonal or simultaneous use of disulfide and hydrazone exchange in dynamic covalent chemistry in aqueous solution. Chemical Communications, 41(42), 5301-5303. https://doi.org/10.1039/b808725c
Besenius, P., Cormack, P. A. G., Ludlow, R. F., Otto, S., & Sherrington, D. C. (2008). Polymer-supported cationic templates for molecular recognition of anionic hosts in water. Chemical Communications, 2(24). https://doi.org/10.1039/b802982b
Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2008). Systems chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews, 37. https://doi.org/10.1039/b611921m
Besenius, P., Cormack, P. A. G., Liu, J., Otto, S., Sanders, J. K. M., & Sherrington, D. C. (2008). Tailored Polymer-Supported Templates in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: Simultaneous Selection, Amplification and Isolation of Synthetic Receptors. Chemistry, 14(29). https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.200800326

2007

Sarma, R. J., Otto, S., & Nitschke, J. R. (2007). Disulfides, Imines, and Metal Coordination within a Single System: Interplay between Three Dynamic Equilibria. Chemistry, 13(34). https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.200701228
Otto, S., & Severin, K. (2007). Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries for the Development of Synthetic Receptors and Sensors. In T. Schrader (Ed.), Creative Chemical Sensor Systems (277 ed., pp. 267-288). (Topics in Current Chemistry; No. 277).
Ludlow, R. F., Liu, J., Li, H., Roberts, S. L., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2007). Host–Guest Binding Constants Can Be Estimated Directly from the Product Distributions of Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 4G, 5762-5764. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200700292
Corbett, P. T., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2007). Systems Chemistry: Pattern Formation in Random Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Angewandte Chemie, 119(46). https://doi.org/10.1002/ange.200702460

2006

Vial, L., Ludlow, R. F., Leclaire, J., Pérez-Fernández, R., & Otto, S. (2006). Controlling the Biological Effects of Spermine Using a Synthetic Receptor. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128(31), 10253-10257. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja062536b
Suksai, C., Figueiras Gómez, S., Chhabra, A., Liu, J., Skepper, J. N., Tuntulani, T., & Otto, S. (2006). Controlling the Morphology of Aggregates of an Amphiphilic Synthetic Receptor through Host-Guest Interactions. Langmuir, 22(14). https://doi.org/10.1021/la0609470
Corbett, P. T., Leclaire, J., Vial, L., West, K. R., Wietor, J-L., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2006). Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. ChemInform, 37(48), 3652-3711. https://doi.org/10.1002/chin.200648268
Pengo, P., Pantoş, G. D., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2006). Efficient and Mild Microwave-Assisted Stepwise Functionalization of Naphthalenediimide with α-Amino Acids. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 71(18). https://doi.org/10.1021/jo061195h
Rodriguez-Docampo, Z., Pascu, S. I., Kubik, S., & Otto, S. (2006). Noncovalent Interactions within a Synthetic Receptor Can Reinforce Guest Binding. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128(34). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja062389h
Otto, S. (2006). Reinforced molecular recognition as an alternative to rigid receptors. Dalton Transactions, 400(23), 2861-2864. https://doi.org/10.1039/b515817f
Kraft, A., Tominey, A., Andrew, D., Dupré, J., McIver, A., Oliphant, L., ... Otto, S. (2006). Supramolecular Binding of Protonated Amines to Functionalized Microgel Particles. Polymer Preprints, 47(2), 937-938.

2005

Vial, L., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2005). A catalyst for an acetal hydrolysis reaction from a dynamic combinatorial library. New Journal of Chemistry, 29(8). https://doi.org/10.1039/b505316a
Lam, R. T. S., Belenguer, A., Roberts, S. L., Naumann, C., Jarrosson, T., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2005). Amplification of Acetylcholine-Binding Catenanes from Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Science, 308(5722). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1109999
Pascu, S. I., Jarrosson, T., Naumann, C., Otto, S., Kaiser, G., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2005). Cation-reinforced donor-acceptor pseudorotaxanes. New Journal of Chemistry, 29(1). https://doi.org/10.1039/b415418e
Corbett, P. T., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2005). Competition between Receptors in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: Amplification of the Fittest? Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127(26). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja0509026
Corbett, P. T., Tong, L. H., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2005). Diastereoselective Amplification of an Induced-Fit Receptor from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127(25). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja050790i
West, K. R., Bake, K. D., & Otto, S. (2005). Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries of Disulfide Cages in Water. Organic letters, 7(13). https://doi.org/10.1021/ol0507524
Leclaire, J., Vial, L., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2005). Expanding diversity in dynamic combinatorial libraries: simultaneous exchange of disulfide and thioester linkages. Chemical Communications, 1(15). https://doi.org/10.1039/b500638d
Otto, S. (2005). Exploring and exploiting molecular recognition using covalent chemistry under thermodynamic control. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 15(33). https://doi.org/10.1039/b500703h
Kubik, S., Goddard, R., Otto, S., Pohl, S., Reyheller, C., & Stüwe, S. (2005). Optimization of the binding properties of a synthetic anion receptor using rational and combinatorial strategies. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 20, 2364-2375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2004.01.035
West, K. R., & Otto, S. (2005). Reversible Covalent Chemistry in Drug Delivery. Current Drug Discovery Technologies, 2(3), 123-160. https://doi.org/10.2174/1570163054866882

2004

Corbett, P. T., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2004). Correlation between Host-Guest Binding and Host Amplification in Simulated Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Chemistry, 10(13), 3139-3143. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.200400300
Kaiser, G., Jarrosson, T., Otto, S., Ng, Y-F., Bond, A. D., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2004). Lithium-Templated Synthesis of a Donor–Acceptor Pseudorotaxane and Catenane. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 43(15), 1959-1962. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200353075
Corbett, P. T., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2004). What Are the Limits to the Size of Effective Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries? Organic letters, 6(11). https://doi.org/10.1021/ol049398k

2003

Otto, S., & Engberts, J. B. F. N. (2003). Hydrophobic interactions and chemical reactivity. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 1(16), 2809 - 2820. https://doi.org/10.1039/b305672d
Stulz, E., Scott, S. M., Bond, A. D., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2003). Complexation of Diphenyl(phenylacetenyl)phosphine to Rhodium(III) Tetraphenyl Porphyrins: Synthesis and Structural, Spectroscopic, and Thermodynamic Studies. Inorganic Chemistry, 42(9), 3086-3096. https://doi.org/10.1021/ic026257a
Otto, S. (2003). Dynamic combinatorial chemistry: A new method for selection and preparation of synthetic receptors. Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development, 6(4), 509-520.
Otto, S., & Kubik, S. (2003). Dynamic Combinatorial Optimization of a Neutral Receptor That Binds Inorganic Anions in Aqueous Solution. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 125(26). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja0351589
Roberts, S. L., Furlan, R. L. E., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2003). Metal-ion induced amplification of three receptors from dynamic combinatorial libraries of peptide-hydrazones. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 1(9). https://doi.org/10.1039/b300956d
Brisig, B., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2003). Selection and Amplification of a Catalyst from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 42(11). https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200390326

2002

Otto, S., Furlan, R. L. E., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2002). Dynamic combinatorial chemistry. Drug Discovery Today, 7(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6446(02)00006-5
Otto, S., Furlan, R. L. E., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2002). Recent developments in dynamic combinatorial chemistry. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 6(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1367-5931(02)00331-9
Otto, S., Furlan, R. L. E., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2002). Selection and Amplification of Hosts From Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries of Macrocyclic Disulfides. Science, 297(5581). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1072361
Furlan, R. L. E., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2002). Supramolecular templating in thermodynamically controlled synthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(8). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.022643699

2001

Furlan, R. L. E., Ng, Y-F., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2001). A New Cyclic Pseudopeptide Receptor for Li+ from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 123(36). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja0160703
Otto, S., & Engberts, J. B. F. N. (2001). Diels-Alder reactions in micellar media. In Host Publication (pp. 247 - 263). New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.

2000

Otto, S., Janout, V., DiGiorgio, A. F., Young, M. C., & Regen, S. L. (2000). Detection of Nonideal Mixing of Phospholipids in Fluid Bilayers. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 122(6). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja993585+
Otto, S., & Engberts, J. B. F. N. (2000). Diels-Alder reactions in water. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 72(7), 1365 - 1372.
Otto, S., & Engberts, J. B. F. N. (2000). Diels–Alder reactions in water. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 72(7), 1365-1372. https://doi.org/10.1351/pac200072071365
Otto, S., Furlan, R. L. E., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2000). Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries of Macrocyclic Disulfides in Water. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 122(48). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja005507o
DiGiorgio, A. F., Otto, S., Bandyopadhyay, P., & Regen, S. L. (2000). Ion Conductors that Favor Passive Transport in Ergosterol-Rich over Cholesterol-Rich Phospholipid Membranes. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 122(44). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja002039+

1999

Otto, S., & Engberts, J. B. F. N. (1999). A systematic study of ligand effects on a Lewis-acid-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction in water. Water-enhanced enantioselectivity. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 121(29), 6798 - 6806. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja984273u
Otto, S., Osifchin, M., & Regen, S. L. (1999). Modular Control over the Selectivity of Self-Assembling and Membrane-Spanning Ion Conductors. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 121(31). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja990505t
Otto, S., Osifchin, M., & Regen, S. L. (1999). Squeezing a Synthetic Ionophore and Mechanistic Insight Out of a Lipid Bilayer. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 121(44). https://doi.org/10.1021/ja992920r

1998

Otto, S., Boccaletti, G., & Engberts, J. B. F. N. (1998). A chiral Lewis-acid-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction. Water- enhanced enantioselectivity. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 120(17), 4238 - 4239. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja972772+
Otto, S. (1998). Catalysis of Diels-Alder reactions in water. Groningen: s.n.
Meijer, A., Otto, S., & Engberts, J. B. F. N. (1998). Effects of the Hydrophobicity of the Reactants on Diels-Alder Reactions in Water. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 63(24), 8989 - 8994. https://doi.org/10.1021/jo981359x
Otto, S., Engberts, J. B. F. N., & Kwak, J. C. T. (1998). Million-fold acceleration of a Diels-Alder reaction due to combined Lewis acid and micellar catalysis in water. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 120(37), 9517 - 9525. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja9816537

1996

Otto, S., Bertoncin, F., & Engberts, JBFN. (1996). Lewis acid catalysis of a Diels-Alder reaction in water. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 118(33), 7702-7707. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja960318k
Engberts, JBFN., Feringa, BL., Keller, E., & Otto, S. (1996). Lewis-acid catalysis of carbon carbon bond forming reactions in water. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas-Journal of the Royal Netherlands Chemical Society, 115(11-12), 457-&. https://doi.org/10.1002/recl.19961151103

1995

Otto, S., & Engberts, J. B. F. N. (1995). LEWIS-ACID CATALYSIS OF A DIELS-ALDER REACTION IN WATER. Tetrahedron Letters, 36(15), 2645 - 2648. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-4039(95)00304-U

1994

Otto, S., Blokzijl, W., & Engberts, J. B. F. N. (1994). Diels-Alder Reactions in Water. Effects of Hydrophobicity and Hydrogen Bonding. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 59(18), 5372-5376. https://doi.org/10.1021/jo00097a045
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