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Otto, Prof. Sijbren

Sijbren Otto
Sijbren Otto
(Photo: Sylvia Germes)

Sijbren Otto is Professor of Systems Chemistry. He studies ‘chemical evolution’. His research group developed a model system of molecules that can make copies of themselves, and showed that diversity can also occur as a result of the mutation of replicators.

Up to now, chemistry research has primarily focused on developing stable systems. But biological systems depend on development and decay, on synthesis and degradation, and on the succession of life and death. Sijbren Otto wants to know whether these biological principles can also be applied to synthetic chemistry. Self-assembling and self-replicating macromolecules play an important role in that process. Synthetic chemical systems of such molecules could also undergo a Darwinian type of evolution. A first step towards synthesized life, Otto

In 2017, he was awarded a prestigious € 2.5 million ERC grant to investigate the possibilities of synthesizing life de-novo in the lab. Otto hopes to take the next steps to bridge the gap between chemistry and biology by building fully synthetic systems. These systems have the essential elements of life: replication, metabolism and compartmentalization. Up to now, it has not been possible to integrate these characteristics in a fully synthetic system. In 2020, Otto was appointed a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW).

In 2021, Otto was awarded the James Flack Norris Award in Physical Organic Chemistry of the American Chemical Society for his leading contribution to establishing the field of systems chemistry. Besides Sijbren Otto, Ben Feringa is the only Dutch scientist that has received this award (in 2007).

In 2023 the European Research Council has awarded Otto an ERC Synergy Grant of EUR 3.4 million for hisproject 'MINILIFE'.

You can find an overview of Sijbren Otto's work on building artificial life here. Or view a visual story of Sijbren Otto's work here.

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Previously in the news

Volkskrant article
Volkskrant article


Markovitch, O., Wu, J., & Otto, S. (2024). Binding of Precursors to Replicator Assemblies Can Improve Replication Fidelity and Mediate Error Correction. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 63(14), Article e202317997.
Komáromy, D., Monzón, D. M., Marić, I., Monreal Santiago, G., Ottelé, J., Altay, M., Schaeffer, G., & Otto, S. (2024). Generalist versus Specialist Self-Replicators. Chemistry – A European Journal, 30(20), Article e202303837.


Ashkenasy, G., Kauffman, S., Lancet, D., Otto, S., Ruiz-Mirazo, K., Semenov, S., & Xavier, J. (2023). Collectively autocatalytic sets. Cell Reports Physical Science, 4(10), Article 101594.
Yang, S., Geiger, Y., Geerts, M., Eleveld, M. J., Kiani, A., & Otto, S. (2023). Enantioselective Self-Replicators. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 145(30), 16889-16898.
Liu, K., Blokhuis, A., van Ewijk, C., Kiani, A., Wu, J., Roos, W. H., & Otto, S. (2023). Light-driven eco-evolutionary dynamics in a synthetic replicator system. Nature Chemistry.
Jin, Y., Mandal, P. K., Wu, J., Böcher, N., Huc, I., & Otto, S. (2023). (Re-)Directing Oligomerization of a Single Building Block into Two Specific Dynamic Covalent Foldamers through pH. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 145(5), 2822-2829.
Marić, I., Yang, L., Li, X., Monreal Santiago, G., Pappas, C. G., Qiu, X., Dijksman, J. A., Mikhailov, K., van Rijn, P., & Otto, S. (2023). Tailorable and Biocompatible Supramolecular-Based Hydrogels Featuring two Dynamic Covalent Chemistries. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 62(14), Article e202216475.


Otto, S. (2022). An Approach to the De Novo Synthesis of Life. Accounts of Chemical Research, 55(2), 145-155.
Hatai, J., Altay, Y., Sood, A., Kiani, A., Eleveld, M. J., Motiei, L., Margulies, D., & Otto, S. (2022). An Optical Probe for Real-Time Monitoring of Self-Replicator Emergence and Distinguishing between Replicators. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 144(7), 3074-3082.
Liu, K., Ottelé, J., & Otto, S. (2022). Emergent Catalysis by Self-Replicating Molecules. In P. W. N. M. van Leeuwen, & M. Raynal (Eds.), Supramolecular Catalysis: New Directions and Developments (pp. 605-614). Wiley.
Liu, B., Wu, J., Geerts, M., Markovitch, O., Pappas, C. G., Liu, K., & Otto, S. (2022). Out-of-equilibrium self-replication allows selection for dynamic kinetic stability in a system of competing replicators. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 61(18), Article e202117605.
Camprubi, E., Markovitch, O., Muchowska, K. B., Otto, S., & ten Kate, I. L. (2022). Prebiotic chemistry: From dust to molecules and beyond. In New Frontiers in Astrobiology (pp. 19-47). Elsevier.
Bartolec, B., Kiani, A., Beatty, M. A., Altay, M., Monreal Santiago, G., & Otto, S. (2022). Selection of diverse polymorphic structures from a small dynamic molecular network controlled by the environment. Chemical Science, 13(48), 14300-14304.
Schaeffer, G., Eleveld, M. J., Ottelé, J., Kroon, P. C., Frederix, P. W. J. M., Yang, S., & Otto, S. (2022). Stochastic Emergence of Two Distinct Self-Replicators from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 144(14), 6291-6297.
Maric, I., Otto, S., & Pappas, C. (2022). Tailor-made functionalized self-assembled peptide (nano)fibers and hydrogels, and methods, uses and kits related thereto. (Patent No. WO2022211624).
Matysiak, B. M., Monreal Santiago, G., & Otto, S. (2022). Teaching an Old Compound New Tricks: Reversible Transamidation in Maleamic Acids. Chemistry - A European Journal, 28(40), Article e202201043.


Yang, S., Schaeffer, G., Mattia, E., Markovitch, O., Liu, K., Hussain, A. S., Ottelé, J., Sood, A., & Otto, S. (2021). Chemical Fueling Enables Molecular Complexification of Self-Replicators. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 60(20), 11344-11349.
Liu, K., & Otto, S. (2021). Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry Out of Equilibrium. In N. Giuseppone, & A. Walther (Eds.), Out-of-Equilibrium (Supra)molecular Systems and Materials (pp. 215-239). Wiley.
Liu, B., Beatty, M. A., Pappas, C. G., Liu, K., Ottelé, J., & Otto, S. (2021). Self-Sorting in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries Leads to the Co-Existence of Foldamers and Self-Replicators. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 60(24), 13569-13573.
Komáromy, D., Tiemersma-Wegman, T., Kemmink, J., Portale, G., Adamski, P. R., Blokhuis, A., Aalbers, F. S., Marić, I., Santiago, G. M., Ottelé, J., Sood, A., Saggiomo, V., Liu, B., van der Meulen, P., & Otto, S. (2021). Stoichiometry alone can steer supramolecular systems on complex free energy surfaces with high selectivity. Chem, 7(7), 1933-1951.
Pappas, C. G., Liu, B., Marić, I., Ottelé, J., Kiani, A., van der Klok, M. L., Onck, P. R., & Otto, S. (2021). Two Sides of the Same Coin: Emergence of Foldamers and Self-Replicators from Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 143(19), 7388–7393.


Markovitch, O., Ottele, J., Veldman, O., & Otto, S. (2020). Automated device for continuous stirring while sampling in liquid chromatography systems. Communications chemistry, 3(1), Article 180.
Maity, S., Ottelé, J., Santiago, G. M., Frederix, P. W. J. M., Kroon, P., Markovitch, O., Stuart, M. C. A., Marrink, S. J., Otto, S., & Roos, W. H. (2020). Caught in the Act: Mechanistic Insight into Supramolecular Polymerization-Driven Self-Replication from Real-Time Visualization. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 142(32), 13709-13717.
Ottelé, J., Hussain, A. S., Mayer, C., & Otto, S. (2020). Chance emergence of catalytic activity and promiscuity in a self-replicator. Nature Catalysis, 3(7), 547-553.
Markovitch, O., Kramer, B. H., Weissing, F. J., van Doorn, G. S., & Otto, S. (2020). Competition dynamics in a chemical system of self-replicating macrocycles. In J. Bongard, J. Lovato, L. Hebert-Dufrésne, R. Dasari, & L. Soros (Eds.), Artificial Life Conference Proceedings (Vol. 32, pp. 462-464). MIT Press.
Monreal Santiago, G., Liu, K., Browne, W. R., & Otto, S. (2020). Emergence of light-driven protometabolism on recruitment of a photocatalytic cofactor by a self-replicator. Nature Chemistry, 12(7), 603-607.
Pappas, C. G., Mandal, P. K., Liu, B., Kauffmann, B., Miao, X., Komáromy, D., Hoffmann, W., Manz, C., Chang, R., Liu, K., Pagel, K., Huc, I., & Otto, S. (2020). Emergence of low-symmetry foldamers from single monomers. Nature Chemistry, 12(12), 1180-1186.
Adamski, P., Eleveld, M., Sood, A., Kun, Á., Szilágyi, A., Czárán, T., Szathmáry, E., & Otto, S. (2020). From self-replication to replicator systems en route to de novo life. Nature reviews chemistry, 4(8), 386-403.
Liu, B., Pappas, C. G., Ottelé, J., Schaeffer, G., Jurissek, C., Pieters, P. F., Altay, M., Marić, I., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2020). Spontaneous Emergence of Self-Replicating Molecules Containing Nucleobases and Amino Acids. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 142(9), 4184-4192.


Liu, B., Pappas, C. G., Zangrando, E., Demitri, N., Chmielewski, P. J., & Otto, S. (2019). Complex Molecules That Fold Like Proteins Can Emerge Spontaneously. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 141(4), 1685-1689.
Malakoutikhah, M., Schaeffer, G., Monreal Santiago, G., Yang, S., Maric, I., & Otto, S. (2019). Cross-Catalysis between Self-Replicators of Different Handedness. Journal of Systems Chemistry, 7(1).
Bartolec, B., Leonetti, G., Li, J., Smit, W., Altay, M., Monreal Santiago, G., Yan, Y., & Otto, S. (2019). Emergence of Compartments Formed from Unconventional Surfactants in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Langmuir, 35(17), 5787-5792.


Altay, Y., Altay, M., & Otto, S. (2018). Existing Self-Replicators Can Direct the Emergence of New Ones. Chemistry, 24(46), 11911-11915.
Altay, M., Altay, Y., & Otto, S. (2018). Parasitic Behavior of Self-Replicating Molecules. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 57(33), 10564-10568.
Bartolec, B., Altay, M., & Otto, S. (2018). Template-promoted self-replication in dynamic combinatorial libraries made from a simple building block. Chemical Communications, 54(93), 13096-13098.


Matysiak, B. M., Nowak, P., Cvrtila, I., Pappas, C. G., Liu, B., Komáromy, D., & Otto, S. (2017). Antiparallel Dynamic Covalent Chemistries. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(19), 6744-6751.
van Esch, J. H., Klajn, R., & Otto, S. (2017). Chemical systems out of equilibrium. Chemical Society Reviews, 46(18), 5474-5475. Article C7CS90088K.
Komáromy, D., Tezcan, M., Schaeffer, G., Marić, I., & Otto, S. (2017). Effector-Triggered Self-Replication in Coupled Subsystems. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 56(46), 14658-14662.
Altay, Y., Tezcan, M., & Otto, S. (2017). Emergence of a New Self-Replicator from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library Requires a Specific Pre-Existing Replicator. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(39), 13612-13615. Article jacs.7b07346.
Mattia, E., Pal, A., Leonetti, G., & Otto, S. (2017). Mechanism of Building Block Exchange in Stacks of Self-Replicating Macrocycles. Synlett, 28(1), 103-107.
Otto, S. (2017). Reaction: Thinking-Species Chemistry and the World's Problems. Chem, 2(2), 158-159.
Cvrtila, I., Fanlo-Virgós, H., Schaeffer, G., Monreal Santiago, G., & Otto, S. (2017). Redox Control over Acyl Hydrazone Photoswitches. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(36), 12459-12465. Article jacs.7b03724.
Komáromy, D., Stuart, M. C. A., Monreal Santiago, G., Tezcan, M., Krasnikov, V. V., & Otto, S. (2017). Self-Assembly Can Direct Dynamic Covalent Bond Formation Towards Diversity or Specificity. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(17), 6234-6241.
Frederix, P. W. J. M., Idé, J., Altay, Y., Schaeffer, G., Surin, M., Beljonne, D., Bondarenko, A. S., Jansen, T. L. C., Otto, S., & Marrink, S. J. (2017). Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of Assemblies of Self-Replicating Peptide Macrocycles. Acs Nano, 11(8), 7858-7868.
Ashkenasy, G., Hermans, T. M., Otto, S., & Taylor, A. F. (2017). Systems chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews, 46(9), 2543-2554.
Duim, H., & Otto, S. (2017). Towards open-ended evolution in self-replicating molecular systems. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, 13, 1189-1203.


Sadownik, J. W., Mattia, E., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2016). Diversification of self-replicating molecules. Nature Chemistry, 8(3), 264-269.
Mondal, M., Radeva, N., Fanlo-Virgos, H., Otto, S., Klebe, G., & Hirsch, A. K. H. (2016). Fragment Linking and Optimization of Inhibitors of the Aspartic Protease Endothiapepsin: Fragment-Based Drug Design Facilitated by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 55(32), 9422-9426.
Nguyen, V. D., Pal, A., Snijkers, F., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Leonetti, G., Otto, S., & van der Gucht, J. (2016). Multi-step control over self-assembled hydrogels of peptide-derived building blocks and a polymeric cross-linker. Soft Matter, 12(2), 432-440.


Li, J., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2015). An Allosteric Receptor by Simultaneous "Casting" and "Molding" in a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 54(3), 833-837.
Pal, A., Malakoutikhah, M., Leonetti, G., Tezcan, M., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Nguyen, V. D., van der Gucht, J., & Otto, S. (2015). Controlling the Structure and Length of Self-Synthesizing Supramolecular Polymers through Nucleated Growth and Disassembly. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 54(27), 7852-7856.
Colomb-Delsuc, M., Mattia, E., Sadownik, J. W., & Otto, S. (2015). Exponential self-replication enabled through a fibre elongation/breakage mechanism. Nature Communications, 6, Article 7427.
Han, Y., Nowak, P., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Leal, M. P., & Otto, S. (2015). Instructable Nanoparticles Using Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. Langmuir, 31(46), 12658-12663.
Nowak, P., Saggiomo, V., Salehian, F., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Han, Y., & Otto, S. (2015). Localized Template-Driven Functionalization of Nanoparticles by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 54(14), 4192-4197.
Leonetti, G., & Otto, S. (2015). Solvent Composition Dictates Emergence in Dynamic Molecular Networks Containing Competing Replicators. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137(5), 2067-2072.
Mattia, E., & Otto, S. (2015). Supramolecular systems chemistry. Nature Nanotechnology, 10(2), 111-119.
Nowak, P., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Otto, S., & Li, J. (2015). Template-Triggered Emergence of a Self-Replicator from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137(34), 10965-10969.


Li, J., Cvrtila, I., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Otten, E., & Otto, S. (2014). An "Ingredients" Approach to Functional Self-Synthesizing Materials: A Metal-Ion-Selective, Multi-Responsive, Self-Assembled Hydrogel. Chemistry, 20(48), 15709-15714.
Li, J., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2014). Catenanes from catenanes: quantitative assessment of cooperativity in dynamic combinatorial catenation. Chemical Science, 5(12), 4968-4974.
Grzybowski, B., Otto, S., & Philp, D. (2014). Systems chemistry: A web themed issue. Chemical Communications, 50(95), 14924-14925.
Fanlo-Virgos, H., Alba, A.-N. R., Hamieh, S., Colomb-Delsuc, M., & Otto, S. (2014). Transient Substrate-Induced Catalyst Formation in a Dynamic Molecular Network. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 53(42), 11346-11350.


Hamieh, S., Saggiomo, V., Nowak, P., Mattia, E., Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2013). A "Dial-A-Receptor" Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 52(47), 12368-12372.
Li, J., Nowak, P., & Otto, S. (2013). Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: From Exploring Molecular Recognition to Systems Chemistry. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135(25), 9222-9239.
Rombouts, W. H., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Werten, M. W. T., Otto, S., de Wolf, F. A., & van der Gucht, J. (2013). Enhanced rigidity and rupture strength of composite hydrogel networks of bio-inspired block copolymers. Soft Matter, 9(29), 6936-6942.
Saggiomo, V., Hristova, Y. R., Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2013). Systems chemistry: using thermodynamically controlled networks to assess molecular similarity. Journal of Systems Chemistry, 4(2).
Otto, S. (2013). The role of solvent cohesion in nonpolar solvation. Chemical Science, 4(7), 2953-2959.
Malakoutikhah, M., Peyralans, J. J.-P., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Fanlo-Virgós, H., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2013). Uncovering the selection criteria for the emergence of multi-building-block replicators from dynamic combinatorial libraries. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135(49), 18406-18417.


Hamieh, S., Ludlow, R. F., Perraud, O., West, K. R., Mattia, E., & Otto, S. (2012). A Synthetic Receptor for Nicotine from a Dynamic Combinatorial Library. Organic letters, 14(21), 5404-5407.
Otto, S. (2012). Dynamic Molecular Networks: From Synthetic Receptors to Self-Replicators. Accounts of Chemical Research, 45(12), 2200-2210.
Wang, J., Stuart, M. A. C., Marcelis, A. T. M., Colomb-Delsuc, M., Otto, S., & van der Gucht, J. (2012). Stable Polymer Micelles Formed by Metal Coordination. Macromolecules, 45(17), 7179-7185.
Saggiomo, V., Otto, S., Marques, I., Felix, V., Torroba, T., & Quesada, R. (2012). The role of lipophilicity in transmembrane anion transport. Chemical Communications, 48(43), 5274-5276.


Rodriguez-Docampo, Z., Eugenieva-Ilieva, E., Reyheller, C., Belenguer, A. M., Kubik, S., & Otto, S. (2011). Dynamic combinatorial development of a neutral synthetic receptor that binds sulfate with nanomolar affinity in aqueous solution. Chemical Communications, 47(35), 9798-9800.
Hunt, R. A. R., Otto, S., & Hunt, R. A. R. (2011). Dynamic combinatorial libraries: new opportunities in systems chemistry. Chemical Communications, 47(3), 847-858.
Li, J., Carnall, J. M. A., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2011). Hydrogel Formation upon Photoinduced Covalent Capture of Macrocycle Stacks from Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 50(36), 8384-8386.


Besenius, P., Cormack, P. A. G., Ludlow, R. F., Otto, S., & Sherrington, D. C. (2010). Affinity chromatography in dynamic combinatorial libraries: one-pot amplification and isolation of a strongly binding receptor. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 8(10), 2414-2418.
Reek, J. N. H., & Otto, S. (2010). Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. Wiley.
Mansfeld, F. M., Au-Yeung, H. Y., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2010). Dynamic combinatorial chemistry at the phospholipid bilayer interface. Journal of Systems Chemistry, 1(12).
Au-Yeung, H. Y., Cougnon, F. B. L., Otto, S., Pantos, G. D., Sanders, J. K. M., & Pantoş, G. D. (2010). Exploiting donor-acceptor interactions in aqueous dynamic combinatorial libraries: exploratory studies of simple systems. Chemical Science, 1(5), 567-574.
Carnall, J. M. A., Waudby, C. A., Belenguer, A. M., Stuart, M. C. A., Peyralans, J. J. .-P., & Otto, S. (2010). Mechanosensitive Self-Replication Driven by Self-Organization. Science, 327(5972), 1502-1506.
Otto, S. (2010). MOLECULAR MACHINES Tiny steps: Tiny steps. Nature Chemistry, 2(2), 75-76.
Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2010). The Impact of the Size of Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries on the Detectability of Molecular Recognition Induced Amplification. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132(17), 5984-+.
Otto, S. (2010). The Practice of Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: Analytical Chemistry, Experimental Design, and Data Analysis. In S. Otto, & J. N. H. Reek (Eds.), Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry (pp. 23-47).
Otto, S., & Reek, J. N. H. (2010). Trends and Perspectives. In S. Otto, & J. N. H. Reek (Eds.), Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry (pp. 185-194).
Kiedrowski, G. V., Otto, S., & Herdewijn, P. (2010). Welcome Home, Systems Chemists! Journal of Systems Chemistry, 1(1).


Likhitsup, A., Deeth, R. J., Otto, S., & Marsh, A. (2009). Apparent non-statistical binding in a ditopic receptor for guanosine. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 7(10), 2093-2103.
Hunt, R. A. R., Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2009). Estimating equilibrium constants for aggregation from the product distribution of a dynamic combinatorial library. Organic letters, 11(22), 5110-5113.
Otto, S. (2009). MOLECULAR SELF-ASSEMBLY Helping themselves. Nature Nanotechnology, 4(1), 13-14.
Mansfeld, F. M., Feng, G., & Otto, S. (2009). Photo-induced molecular-recognition-mediated adhesion of giant vesicles. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 7(20), 4289-4295.
Peyralans, J. J. P., & Otto, S. (2009). Recent highlights in systems chemistry. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 13(5-6), 705-713.
Au-Yeung, H. Y., Pengo, P., Pantoş, G. D., Otto, S., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2009). Templated amplification of a naphthalenediimide-based receptor from a donor–acceptor dynamic combinatorial library in water. Chemical Communications, 419-421.


West, K. R., Ludlow, R. F., Corbett, P. T., Besenius, P., Mansfeld, F. M., Cormack, P. A. G., Sherrington, D. C., Goodman, J. M., Stuart, M. C. A., & Otto, S. (2008). Dynamic combinatorial discovery of a [2]-catenane and its guest-induced conversion into a molecular square host. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(33), 10834-+.
Corbett, P. T., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2008). Exploring the Relation between Amplification and Binding in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries of Macrocyclic Synthetic Receptors in Water. Chemistry, 14(7).
Rodriguez-Docampo, Z., & Otto, S. (2008). Orthogonal or simultaneous use of disulfide and hydrazone exchange in dynamic covalent chemistry in aqueous solution. Chemical Communications, 41(42), 5301-5303.
Besenius, P., Cormack, P. A. G., Ludlow, R. F., Otto, S., & Sherrington, D. C. (2008). Polymer-supported cationic templates for molecular recognition of anionic hosts in water. Chemical Communications, 2(24).
Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2008). Systems chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews, 37(1), 101-108.
Besenius, P., Cormack, P. A. G., Liu, J., Otto, S., Sanders, J. K. M., & Sherrington, D. C. (2008). Tailored Polymer-Supported Templates in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries: Simultaneous Selection, Amplification and Isolation of Synthetic Receptors. Chemistry, 14(29).
Ludlow, R. F., & Otto, S. (2008). Two-vial, LC-MS identification of ephedrine receptors from a solution-phase dynamic combinatorial library of over 9000 components. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(37), 12218-+.


Sarma, R. J., Otto, S., & Nitschke, J. R. (2007). Disulfides, Imines, and Metal Coordination within a Single System: Interplay between Three Dynamic Equilibria. Chemistry, 13(34).
Otto, S., & Severin, K. (2007). Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries for the Development of Synthetic Receptors and Sensors. In T. Schrader (Ed.), Creative Chemical Sensor Systems (277 ed., pp. 267-288). (Topics in Current Chemistry; No. 277).
Ludlow, R. F., Liu, J., Li, H., Roberts, S. L., Sanders, J. K. M., & Otto, S. (2007). Host–Guest Binding Constants Can Be Estimated Directly from the Product Distributions of Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 4G, 5762-5764.
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