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Smit, prof. dr. ir. Chris

Chris Smit
Chris Smit

Chris Smit is an associate professor of Experimental Conservation Ecology at the Faculty of Science and Engineering at the University of Groningen. He studied Forest and Nature Conservation at Wageningen University. Smit specializes in experimental conservation ecology, investigating interactions between species and their effects on the dynamics, biodiversity, and spatial organization of natural communities.

Smit mostly uses large-scale field studies in ecosystems where herbivores, including large herbivores, play an important role (e.g., temperate savannahs, forest meadows, semi-arid steppes, temperate lowland forests, salt marshes, wetlands). His interest lies with facilitation, i.e. positive interactions between species, and how these interactions are shaped by the interplay of different biotic and abiotic factors. Furthermore, Smit researches the ecology of fear, i.e. how large predators —and humans— influence herbivore behaviour, with possible cascading effects on the ecosystem.

Previously in the news (mainly in Dutch)

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prof. dr. ir. Chris Smit


Ramirez, J. I., Kuijper, D. P. J., Olofsson, J., Smit, C., Hofmeester, T. R., Siewert, M. B., Widemo, F., & Cromsigt, J. P. G. M. (2024). Applied ecology of fear: A meta-analysis on the potential of facilitating human-wildlife coexistence through nonlethal tools. Ecological Solutions and Evidence, 5(2), Article e12322.
Bakker, J., de Vries, Y., Buyens, I., & Smit, C. (2024). Beweiding kan aantal plantensoorten op kwelder verhogen. De Levende Natuur, 125(1), 21-28.
Smit, C., & Kuijper, D. P. J. (2024). Free-ranging cattle and the return of the wolf: Behavioral responses and implications for conservation management. Wildlife biology, Article e01237. Advance online publication.
Velasco, N., Soto-Agurto, C., Carbone, L., Massi, C., Bustamante, R., & Smit, C. (2024). Large-scale facilitative effects for a single nurse shrub: Impact of the rainfall gradient, plant community and distribution across a geographical barrier. Journal of Ecology, 112(2), 233-245.
Otte, P. J., Cromsigt, J. P. G. M., Smit, C., & Hofmeester, TR. (2024). Snow cover-related camouflage mismatch increases detection by predators. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology, 341(4), 327-337.


Schepers, M., Smit, C., & Scheepens, J. F. (2023). Akkeren op de kwelder. In A. Nieuwhof, & A. Buursma (Eds.), Van Drenthe tot aan ’t Wad. Over landschap, archeologie en geschiedenis van Noord-Nederland: Essays ter ere van Egge Knol (pp. 41-52). (Jaarverslagen van de Vereniging voor Terpenonderzoek; Vol. 104). Vereniging voor Terpenonderzoek.
Velasco, N., Andrade, N., Smit, C., & Bustamante, R. (2023). Climatic niche convergence through space and time for a potential archaeophyte (Acacia caven) in South America. Scientific Reports, 13(1), Article 9340.
Velasco, N., Bustamante, R., & Smit, C. (2023). Dispersal syndromes of Vachellia caven: Dismantling introduction hypotheses and the role of man as a conceptual support for an archaeophyte in South America. Heliyon, 9(6), Article e17171.
Conti, L., Valencia, E., Galland, T., Götzenberger, L., Lepš, J., E-Vojtkó, A., Carmona, C. P., Májeková, M., Danihelka, J., Dengler, J., Eldridge, D. J., Estiarte, M., García-González, R., Garnier, E., Gómez, D., Hadincová, V., Harrison, S. P., Herben, T., Ibáñez, R., ... De Bello, F. (2023). Functional trait trade-offs define plant population stability across different biomes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 290(2001), Article 20230344.
Di Nicola, W., Mols, B., & Smit, C. (2023). Human recreation shapes the local scale impact of ungulates on the carbon pools of a temperate coniferous forest. Global Ecology and Conservation, 46, Article e02574.
Smit, C., Buyens, I. P. R., & le Roux, P. C. (2023). Vegetation patch dynamics in rangelands: How feedbacks between large herbivores, vegetation and soil fauna alter patches over space and through time. Applied Vegetation Science, 26(4), Article e12747.


Zhong, Z., Li, X., Smit, C., Li, T., Wang, L., Aschero, V., Vázquez, D., Ritchie, M., Cushman, J. H., & Wang, D. (2022). Large herbivores facilitate a dominant grassland forb via multiple indirect effects. Ecology, 103(4), Article e3635.
Sperandii, M. G., de Bello, F., Valencia, E., Götzenberger, L., Bazzichetto, M., Galland, T., E-Vojtkó, A., Conti, L., Adler, P. B., Buckley, H., Danihelka, J., Day, N. J., Dengler, J., Eldridge, D. J., Estiarte, M., García-González, R., Garnier, E., Gómez-García, D., Hallett, L., ... Lepš, J. (2022). LOTVS: A global collection of permanent vegetation plots. Journal of Vegetation Science, 33(2), Article e13115.
Veldhuis, E. R., Skinkis, J., Verheyen, K., Smolders, A. J. P., & Smit, C. (2022). Mycorrhizal fungi improve growth of Juniperus communis but only at sufficiently high soil element concentrations. Basic and Applied Ecology, 65, 78-85.
Mols, B., Lambers, E., Cromsigt, J. P. G. M., Kuijper, D. P. J., & Smit, C. (2022). Recreation and hunting differentially affect deer behaviour and sapling performance. Oikos, 2022(1), Article e08448.
Mols, B., Churchill, J. E., Cromsigt, J. P. G. M., Kuijper, D. P. J., & Smit, C. (2022). Recreation reduces tick density through fine-scale risk effects on deer space-use. Science of the Total Environment, 839, Article 156222.


van Puijenbroek, M. E. B., van den Dool, R., Koppenaal, E. C., Smit, C., Berendse, F., Limpens, J., & Bakker, J. P. (2021). Green beach vegetation dynamics explained by embryo dune development. Basic and Applied Ecology, 56, 42-57.
van Ginkel, H. A. L., Churski, M., Kuijper, D. P. J., & Smit, C. (2021). Impediments affect deer foraging decisions and sapling performance. Forest ecology and management, 482, Article 118838.
Verwijmeren, M., Baudena, M., Wassen, M., Díaz-Sierra, R., Smit, C., & Rietkerk, M. (2021). Intra-seasonal rainfall variability and herbivory affect the interaction outcome of two dryland plant species. Ecosphere, 12(4), Article e03492.
García Hernández, E., Berg, M. P., Van Oosten, A. R., Smit, C., & Falcão Salles, J. (2021). Linking bacterial communities associated with the environment and the ecosystem engineer Orchestia gammarellus at contrasting salt marsh elevations. Microbial ecology, 82, 537-548.
Chen, Q., Bakker, J. P., Alberti, J., Bakker, E. S., Smit, C., & Olff, H. (2021). Long-term cross-scale comparison of grazing and mowing on plant diversity and community composition in a salt-marsh system. Journal of Ecology, 109(10), 3727-3737.
Sanchez Aguilar, L., Smit, C., & Trompert, R. (2021). Process of stop-motion and motion graphics animation for The Amazing European Bison Journey clip. In CONFIA 2021 : 9th International Conference on Illustration and Animation (pp. 478-485). Instituto Politécnico do Cávado e do Ave.
Chen, Q., Smit, C., Pen, I., & Olff, H. (2021). Small herbivores and abiotic heterogeneity promote trait variation of a saltmarsh plant in local communities. PeerJ, 9, Article e12633.


Mueller, P., Do, H. T., Smit, C., Reisdorff, C., Jensen, K., & Nolte, S. (2021). With a little help from my friends: Physiological integration facilitates invasion of wetland grass Elymus athericus into flooded soils. Oikos, 130(3), 431-439.
Moedt, S., Smit, C., Lagendijk, G., Bakker, J. P., Nolte, S., van Klink, R., Wielemaker, A., & Esselink, P. (2020). De invloed van wisselbeweiding op de biodiversiteit van kwelders. De Levende Natuur, 121(4), 140-145.
Valencia, E., de Bello, F., Leps, J., Galland, T., E-Vojtko, A., Conti, L., Danihelka, J., Dengler, J., Eldridge, D. J., Estiarte, M., Garcia-Gonzalez, R., Garnier, E., Gomez, D., Harrison, S., Herben, T., Ibanez, R., Jentsch, A., Juergens, N., Kertesz, M., ... Gotzenberger, L. (2020). Directional trends in species composition over time can lead to a widespread overemphasis of year-to-year asynchrony. Journal of Vegetation Science, 31(5), 792-802.
Chen, Q., Bakker, J. P., Alberti, J., & Smit, C. (2020). Long-term management is needed for conserving plant diversity in a Wadden Sea salt marsh. Biodiversity and Conservation, 29(7), 2329-2341.
van Klink, R., van Laar-Wiersma, J., Vorst, O., & Smit, C. (2020). Rewilding with large herbivores: Positive direct and delayed effects of carrion on plant and arthropod communities. PLoS ONE, 15(1), Article e0226946.
Hernández, E. G., Baraza, E., Smit, C., Berg, M. P., & Falcão Salles, J. (2020). Salt marsh elevation drives root microbial composition of the native invasive grass Elytrigia atherica. Microorganisms, 8(10), 1-19. Article 1619.
Valencia, E., de Bello, F., Galland, T., Adler, P. B., Lepš, J., E-Vojtkó, A., van Klink, R., Carmona, C. P., Danihelka, J., Dengler, J., Eldridge, D. J., Estiarte, M., García-González, R., Garnier, E., Gómez-García, D., Harrison, S. P., Herben, T., Ibáñez, R., Jentsch, A., ... Götzenberger, L. (2020). Synchrony matters more than species richness in plant community stability at a global scale. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(39), 24345-24351.


van Ginkel, H. A. L., Smit, C., & Kuijper, D. P. J. (2019). Behavioral response of naïve and non-naïve deer to wolf urine. PLoS ONE, 14(11), Article e0223248.
Verwijmeren, M., Smit, C., Bautista, S., Wassen, M. J., & Rietkerk, M. (2019). Combined grazing and drought stress alter the outcome of nurse:beneficiary interactions in a semi-arid ecosystem. Ecosystems, 22(6), 1295-1307.
Lagendijk, D. D. G., Howison, R. A., Esselink, P., & Smit, C. (2019). Grazing as a conservation management tool: Responses of voles to grazer species and densities. Basic and Applied Ecology, 34, 36-45.
Kuijper, D. P. J., Churski, M., Trouwborst, A., Heurich, M., Smit, C., Kerley, G. I. H., & Cromsigt, J. P. G. M. (2019). Keep the wolf from the door: How to conserve wolves in Europe's human-dominated landscapes? Biological Conservation, 235, 102-111.
Chen, Q., Howison, R. A., Bakker, J. P., Alberti, J., Kuijper, D. P. J., Olff, H., & Smit, C. (2019). Small herbivores slow down species loss up to 22 years but only at early successional stage. Journal of Ecology, 107, 2688-2696.


van Ginkel, H. A. L., Kuijper, D. P. J., Schotanus, J., & Smit, C. (2019). Wolves and tree logs: Landscape-scale and fine-scale risk factors interactively influence tree regeneration. Ecosystems, 22(1), 202-212.
Koerner, S. E., Smith, M. D., Burkepile, D. E., Hanan, N. P., Avolio, M. L., Collins, S. L., Knapp, A. K., Lemoine, N. P., Forrestel, E. J., Eby, S., Thompson, D. I., Aguado-Santacruz, G. A., Anderson, J. P., Anderson, T. M., Angassa, A., Bagchi, S., Bakker, E. S., Bastin, G., Baur, L. E., ... Smit, C. (2018). Change in dominance determines herbivore effects on plant biodiversity. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2, 1925-1932.
Mueller, P., Schile-Beers, L. M., Mozdzer, T. J., Chmura, G. L., Dinter, T., Kuzyakov, Y., de Groot, A. V., Esselink, P., Smit, C., D'Alpaos, A., Ibanez, C., Lazarus, M., Neumeier, U., Johnson, B. J., Baldwin, A. H., Yarwood, S. A., Montemayor, D. I., Yang, Z., Wu, J., ... Nolte, S. (2018). Global-change effects on early-stage decomposition processes in tidal wetlands: Implications from a global survey using standardized litter. Biogeosciences, 15(10), 3189-3202.
Verkuil, Y. I., van Guldener, W. E. A., Lagendijk, D. D. G., & Smit, C. (2018). Molecular identification of temperate Cricetidae and Muridae rodent species using fecal samples collected in a natural habitat. Mammal Research, 63(3), 379-385.
Li, X., Zhong, Z., Sanders, D., Smit, C., Wang, D., Nummi, P., Zhu, Y., Wang, L., Zhu, H., & Hassan, N. (2018). Reciprocal facilitation between large herbivores and ants in a semi-arid grassland. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 285(1888), Article 20181665.


Nolte, S., Van der Weyde, C., Esselink, P., Smit, C., Van Wieren, S. E., & Bakker, J. P. (2017). Behaviour of horses and cattle at two stocking densities in a coastal salt marsh. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 21(3), 369-379.
Howison, R. A., Olff, H., van de Koppel, J., & Smit, C. (2017). Biotically driven vegetation mosaics in grazing ecosystems: The battle between bioturbation and biocompaction. Ecological monographs, 87(3), 363-378.
Garbutt, A., de Groot, A., Smit, C., & Petillon, J. (2017). European salt marshes: Ecology and conservation in a changing world. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 21(3), 405-408.
Alberti, J., Bakker, E. S., van Klink, R., Olff, H., & Smit, C. (2017). Herbivore exclusion promotes a more stochastic plant community assembly in a natural grassland. Ecology, 98(4), 961-970.
Dillen, M., Smit, C., & Verheyen, K. (2017). How does neighbourhood tree species composition affect growth characteristics of oak saplings? Forest ecology and management, 401, 177-186.
Bakker, J. P., de Vries, Y., & Smit, C. (2017). Langjarige bemestingsexperimenten in graslanden van Loefvledder, Drentsche Aa. De Levende Natuur, 118(5), 193-199.
Lagendijk, D. D. G., Howison, R. A., Esselink, P., Ubels, R., & Smit, C. (2017). Rotation grazing as a conservation management tool: Vegetation changes after six years of application in a salt marsh ecosystem. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 246, 361-366.
Dillen, M., Smit, C., Buyse, M., Höfte, M., De Clercq, P., & Verheyen, K. (2017). Stronger diversity effects with increased environmental stress: A study of multitrophic interactions between oak, powdery mildew and ladybirds. PLoS ONE, 12(4), Article e0176104.


Meijer, K., Schilthuizen, M., Beukeboom, L., & Smit, C. (2016). A review and meta-analysis of the enemy release hypothesis in plant-herbivorous insect systems. PeerJ, 4, Article e2778.
van Klink, R., Nolte, S., Mandema, F., Lagendijk, D. D. G., WallisDeVries, M. F., Bakker, J. P., Esselink, P., & Smit, C. (2016). Effects of grazing management on biodiversity across trophic levels: The importance of livestock species and stocking density in salt marshes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 235, 329-339.
Howison, R. A., Olff, H., van Puijenbroek, M. E. B., & Smit, C. (2016). Facultative grazing and bioturbation by macrodetritivores alter saltmarsh plant-plant interactions under stress. Journal of Ecology, 104(4), 1149-1157.
Meijer, K., Smit, C., Schilthuizen, M., & Beukeboom, L. W. (2016). Fitness benefits of the fruit fly Rhagoletis alternata on a non-native rose host. Oecologia, 181(1), 185-192.
Dillen, M., Kris, V., & Smit, C. (2016). Identity rather than richness drives local neighbourhood species composition effects on oak sapling growth in a young forest. Forest ecology and management, 380, 274-284.
Schilthuizen, M., Santos Pimenta, L. P., Lammers, Y., Steenbergen, P. J., Flohil, M., Beveridge, N. G. P., van Duijn, P. T., Meulblok, M. M., Sosef, N., van de Ven, R., Werring, R., Beentjes, K. K., Meijer, K., Vos, R. A., Vrieling, K., Gravendeel, B., Choi, Y., Verpoorte, R., Smit, C., & Beukeboom, L. W. (2016). Incorporation of an invasive plant into a native insect herbivore food web. PeerJ, 4, Article e1954.
van Klink, R., Ruifrok, J. L., & Smit, C. (2016). Rewilding with large herbivores: Direct effects and edge effects of grazing refuges on plant and invertebrate communities. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 234, 81-97.
Howison, R. A., Berg, M. P., Smit, C., van Dijk, K., & Olff, H. (2016). The importance of coprophagous macrodetritivores for the maintenance of vegetation heterogeneity in an African Savannah. Ecosystems, 19(4), 674-684.


Ruifrok, J. L., Janzen, T., Kuijper, D. P. J., Rietkerk, M., Olff, H., & Smit, C. (2015). Cyclical succession in grazed ecosystems: The importance of interactions between different-sized herbivores and different-sized predators. Theoretical Population Biology, 101, 31-39.
Kromkamp, N., & Smit, C. (2015). De terugkeer van de jeneverbes? De Levende Natuur.
Bakker, J. P., de Vries, Y., & Smit, C. (2015). Effectiviteit van vervolgbeheer na afplaggen van voedselrijk grasland in het Drentsche Aa-gebied. Stratiotes, 48, 5-14.
Nolte, S., Esselink, P., Bakker, J. P., & Smit, C. (2015). Effects of livestock species and stocking density on accretion rates in grazed salt marshes. Estuarine coastal and shelf science, 152, 109-115.
Cromsigt, J., Kemp, Y., Linnartz, L., Smit, C., Voeten, M., & Wassen, M. (2015). Ervaringen uit het Kraansvlak: Lessen voor toekomstige wisent introducties. Vakblad Natuur, Bos en Landschap.
Howison, R. A., Olff, H., Steever, R., & Smit, C. (2015). Large herbivores change the direction of interactions within plant communities along a salt marsh stress gradient. Journal of Vegetation Science, 26(6), 1159-1170.
Meijer, K., Zemel, H., Chiba, S., Smit, C., Beukeboom, L. W., & Schilthuizen, M. (2015). Phytophagous insects on native and non-native host plants: Combining the community approach and the biogeographical approach. PLoS ONE, 10(5), Article e0125607.
Smit, C., Ruifrok, J. L., van Klink, R., & Olff, H. (2015). Rewilding with large herbivores: The importance of grazing refuges for sapling establishment and wood-pasture formation. Biological Conservation, 182, 134-142.
van Klink, R., Ruifrok, J., & Smit, C. (2015). Verjonging van bomen en struiken en de diversiteit van planten en ongewervelden in de Oostvaardersplassen. De Levende Natuur, 116(4), 163-169.


Soliveres, S., Smit, C., & Maestre, F. T. (2015). Moving forward on facilitation research: Response to changing environments and effects on the diversity, functioning and evolution of plant communities. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 90(1), 297-313.
Verwijmeren, M., Rietkerk, M., Bautista, S., Mayor, A. G., Wassen, M. J., & Smit, C. (2014). Drought and grazing combined: Contrasting shifts in plant interactions at species pair and community level. Journal of Arid Environments, 111, 53-60.
Nolte, S., Esselink, P., Smit, C., & Bakker, J. P. (2014). Herbivore species and density affect vegetation-structure patchiness in salt marshes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 185, 41-47.
Ruifrok, J. L., Postma, F., Olff, H., & Smit, C. (2014). Scale-dependent effects of grazing and topographic heterogeneity on plant species richness in a Dutch salt marsh ecosystem. Applied Vegetation Science, 17(4), 615-624.
Smit, C. (2014). Vestigingsmogelijkheden van houtige gewassen in de Oostvaardersplassen. Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Kuijper, D. P. J., Verwijmeren, M., Churski, M., Zbyryt, A., Schmidt, K., Jędrzejewska, B., & Smit, C. (2014). What cues do ungulates use to assess predation risk in dense temperate forests? PLoS ONE, 9(1), Article e84607.


Bakker, J. P., De Vries, Y., & Smit, C. (2013). Hooien met verschillende frequentie: 40 jaar verschralend beheer. De Levende Natuur, 114, 244-245.
Kalwij, J. M., & Smit, C. (2013). How authors can maximise the chance of manuscript acceptance and article visibility. Learned publishing, 26(1), 28-31.
Verwijmeren, M., Rietkerk, M., Wassen, M. J., & Smit, C. (2013). Interspecific facilitation and critical transitions in arid ecosystems. Oikos, 122(3), 341-347.
Langbroek, E., Bakker, C., & Smit, C. (2013). Ruimte voor de rivier: Ontwikkelingen van de vegetatiestructuur in de Blauwe Kamer. De Levende Natuur.
van Ginkel, H. A. L., Kuijper, D. P. J., Churski, M., Zub, K., Szafranska, P., & Smit, C. (2013). Safe for saplings not safe for seeds: Quercus robur recruitment in relation to coarse woody debris in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland. Forest ecology and management, 304, 73-79.
op de Hoek, T., Schrama, M., & Smit, C. (2013). Verwilderde katten op Schiermonnikoog. De Levende Natuur, 114(1).


Smit, C., Kuijper, D. P. J., Prentice, D., Wassen, M. J., & Cromsigt, J. P. G. M. (2012). Coarse woody debris facilitates oak recruitment in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland. Forest ecology and management, 284, 133-141.
van de Blaak, R., Linnartz , L., & Smit, C. (2012). Gaan wisenten en mensen samen? 5 jaar praktijk onderzoek uitgewerkt. Vakblad Natuur, Bos en Landschap, 9(7), 32-35.
Meijer, K., Smit, C., Beukeboom, L. W., & Schilthuizen, M. (2012). Native insects on non-native plants in The Netherlands: Curiosities or common practice? Entomologische Berichten, 72(6), 288-293.


Smit, C. (2011). Desarrollo de un protocolo de seguimiento a largo plazo de los organismos clave para el funcionamiento de los bosques mediterráneos. In In: Ramírez, L. (Ed.), Proyectos de investigación en parques nacionales 2007-2010, Madrid
Smit, C., & Ruifrok, J. L. (2011). From protege to nurse plant: Establishment of thorny shrubs in grazed temperate woodlands. Journal of Vegetation Science, 22(3), 377-386.
Smit, C. (2011). Grote grazers in het Kotterbos en Oostvaardersbos: Effecten van het openstellen van de bossen rondom de Oostvaardersplassen voor rund, paard en edelhert op de bosvitaliteit; onderzoeksopzet en nulmeting. Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Bakker, J. P., de Vries, Y., & Smit, C. (2011). Het onverwacht ontstaan van een parkachtig landschap. De Levende Natuur, 112, 185-190.
Smit, C. (2011). Konijn en jeneverbes. De Levende Natuur.
Smit, C. (2011). Large herbivores as ‘Environmental Engineers’. In . In: Ungulate Management in Europe; Problems and Practices. Eds: M. Appolonio, R. Andersen and R. Putman
Verhulst, J., Kleijn, D., Loonen, W., Berendse, F., & Smit, C. (2011). Seasonal distribution of meadow birds in relation to in-field heterogeneity and management. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 142(3-4), 161-166.
Scheper, J., & Smit, C. (2011). The role of rodents in the seed fate of a thorny shrub in an ancient wood pasture. Acta oecologica-International journal of ecology, 37(2), 133-139.
Smit, C., & Verwijmeren, M. (2011). Tree-shrub associations in grazed woodlands: First rodents, then cattle? Plant ecology, 212(3), 483-493.


Smit, C., Bakker, E. S., Apol, M. E. F., & Olff, H. (2010). Effects of cattle and rabbit grazing on clonal expansion of spiny shrubs in wood-pastures. Basic and Applied Ecology, 11(8), 685-692.


Smit, C. (2009). Begrazing, facilitatie en schuivende mozaïken. Landschap - Tijdschrift voor landschapsonderzoek, 4.
Vandenberghe, C., Smit, C., Pohl, M., Buttler, A., & Frelechoux, F. (2009). Does the strength of facilitation by nurse shrubs depend on grazing resistance of tree saplings? Basic and Applied Ecology, 10(5), 427-436.
Smit, C., Diaz, M., & Jansen, P. (2009). Establishment limitation of holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp ballota (Desf.) Samp.) in a Mediterranean savanna - forest ecosystem. Annals of forest science, 66(5), Article 511.
Smit, C., Rietkerk, M., & Wassen, M. J. (2009). Inclusion of biotic stress (consumer pressure) alters predictions from the stress gradient hypothesis. Journal of Ecology, 97(6), 1215-1219.
Smit, C., & Ruifrok, J. L. (2009). Verschuivende mozaïeken de rol van kleine zoogdieren. Landschap, 26(4), 189-197.


Smit, C., den Ouden, J., & Diaz, M. (2008). Facilitation of Quercus ilex recruitment by shrubs in Mediterranean open woodlands. Journal of Vegetation Science, 19(2), 193-200.
Smit, C. (2008). Ruimte voor de wisent in de lage landen. De Levende Natuur, 109.


Smit, C. (2007). Desarrollo de un protocolo de seguimiento a largo plazo de los organismos clave para el funcionamiento de los bosques mediterráneos. In In: Ramírez, L. (Ed.), Proyectos de investigación en parques nacionales 2003-2006, Madrid
Smit, C., Vandenberghe, C., den Ouden, J., & Mueller-Schaerer, H. (2007). Nurse plants, tree saplings and grazing pressure: Changes in facilitation along a biotic environmental gradient. Oecologia, 152(2), 265-273.


Smit, C. (2006). Peer review: Time for a change? BioScience, 56(9), 712-713.[712:PRTFAC]2.0.CO;2
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