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Smit, prof. dr. ir. Chris

Chris Smit
Chris Smit

Chris Smit is an associate professor of Experimental Conservation Ecology at the Faculty of Science and Engineering at the University of Groningen. He studied Forest and Nature Conservation at Wageningen University. Smit specializes in experimental conservation ecology, investigating interactions between species and their effects on the dynamics, biodiversity, and spatial organization of natural communities.

Smit mostly uses large-scale field studies in ecosystems where herbivores, including large herbivores, play an important role (e.g., temperate savannahs, forest meadows, semi-arid steppes, temperate lowland forests, salt marshes, riverbeds). His interest lies with facilitation, i.e. positive interactions between species, and how these interactions are shaped by the interplay of different biotic and abiotic factors. Furthermore, Smit researches the ecology of fear, i.e. how large predators —and humans— influence herbivore behaviour, with possible cascading effects on the ecosystem.

Previously in the news (mainly in Dutch)

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prof. dr. ir. Chris Smit

2022

Zhong, Z., Li, X., Smit, C., Li, T., Wang, L., Aschero, V., Vázquez, D., Ritchie, M., Cushman, J. H., & Wang, D. (2022). Large herbivores facilitate a dominant grassland forb via multiple indirect effects. Ecology, 103(4), [e3635]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3635
Sperandii, M. G., de Bello, F., Valencia, E., Götzenberger, L., Bazzichetto, M., Galland, T., E-Vojtkó, A., Conti, L., Adler, P. B., Buckley, H., Danihelka, J., Day, N. J., Dengler, J., Eldridge, D. J., Estiarte, M., García-González, R., Garnier, E., Gómez-García, D., Hallett, L., ... Lepš, J. (2022). LOTVS: A global collection of permanent vegetation plots. Journal of Vegetation Science, 33(2), [e13115]. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.13115
Mols, B., Lambers, E., Cromsigt, J. P. G. M., Kuijper, D. P. J., & Smit, C. (2022). Recreation and hunting differentially affect deer behaviour and sapling performance. Oikos, 2022(1), [e08448]. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.08448
Mols, B., Churchill, J. E., Cromsigt, J. P. G. M., Kuijper, D. P. J., & Smit, C. (2022). Recreation reduces tick density through fine-scale risk effects on deer space-use. Science of the Total Environment, 839, [156222]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156222

2021

van Puijenbroek, M. E. B., van den Dool, R., Koppenaal, E. C., Smit, C., Berendse, F., Limpens, J., & Bakker, J. P. (2021). Green beach vegetation dynamics explained by embryo dune development. Basic and Applied Ecology, 56, 42-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2021.06.003
van Ginkel, H. A. L., Churski, M., Kuijper, D. P. J., & Smit, C. (2021). Impediments affect deer foraging decisions and sapling performance. Forest ecology and management, 482, [118838]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2020.118838
Verwijmeren, M., Baudena, M., Wassen, M., Díaz-Sierra, R., Smit, C., & Rietkerk, M. (2021). Intra-seasonal rainfall variability and herbivory affect the interaction outcome of two dryland plant species. Ecosphere, 12(4), [e03492]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.3492
García Hernández, E., Berg, M. P., Van Oosten, A. R., Smit, C., & Falcão Salles, J. (2021). Linking bacterial communities associated with the environment and the ecosystem engineer Orchestia gammarellus at contrasting salt marsh elevations. Microbial ecology, 82, 537-548. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-020-01656-w
Chen, Q., Bakker, J. P., Alberti, J., Bakker, E. S., Smit, C., & Olff, H. (2021). Long-term cross-scale comparison of grazing and mowing on plant diversity and community composition in a salt-marsh system. Journal of Ecology, 109(10), 3727-3737. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13753
Chen, Q., Smit, C., Pen, I., & Olff, H. (2021). Small herbivores and abiotic heterogeneity promote trait variation of a saltmarsh plant in local communities. PeerJ, 9, [e12633]. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.12633

2020

Mueller, P., Do, H. T., Smit, C., Reisdorff, C., Jensen, K., & Nolte, S. (2021). With a little help from my friends: Physiological integration facilitates invasion of wetland grass Elymus athericus into flooded soils. Oikos, 130(3), 431-439. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.07863
Moedt, S., Smit, C., Lagendijk, G., Bakker, J. P., Nolte, S., van Klink, R., Wielemaker, A., & Esselink, P. (2020). De invloed van wisselbeweiding op de biodiversiteit van kwelders. De Levende Natuur, 121(4), 140-145.
Valencia, E., de Bello, F., Leps, J., Galland, T., E-Vojtko, A., Conti, L., Danihelka, J., Dengler, J., Eldridge, D. J., Estiarte, M., Garcia-Gonzalez, R., Garnier, E., Gomez, D., Harrison, S., Herben, T., Ibanez, R., Jentsch, A., Juergens, N., Kertesz, M., ... Gotzenberger, L. (2020). Directional trends in species composition over time can lead to a widespread overemphasis of year-to-year asynchrony. Journal of Vegetation Science, 31(5), 792-802. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12916
Chen, Q., Bakker, J. P., Alberti, J., & Smit, C. (2020). Long-term management is needed for conserving plant diversity in a Wadden Sea salt marsh. Biodiversity and Conservation, 29(7), 2329-2341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-020-01976-w
van Klink, R., van Laar-Wiersma, J., Vorst, O., & Smit, C. (2020). Rewilding with large herbivores: Positive direct and delayed effects of carrion on plant and arthropod communities. PLoS ONE, 15(1), [e0226946]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226946
Hernández, E. G., Baraza, E., Smit, C., Berg, M. P., & Falcão Salles, J. (2020). Salt marsh elevation drives root microbial composition of the native invasive grass Elytrigia atherica. Microorganisms, 8(10), 1-19. [1619]. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101619
Valencia, E., de Bello, F., Galland, T., Adler, P. B., Lepš, J., E-Vojtkó, A., van Klink, R., Carmona, C. P., Danihelka, J., Dengler, J., Eldridge, D. J., Estiarte, M., García-González, R., Garnier, E., Gómez-García, D., Harrison, S. P., Herben, T., Ibáñez, R., Jentsch, A., ... Götzenberger, L. (2020). Synchrony matters more than species richness in plant community stability at a global scale. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(39), 24345-24351. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1920405117

2019

van Ginkel, H. A. L., Smit, C., & Kuijper, D. P. J. (2019). Behavioral response of naïve and non-naïve deer to wolf urine. PLoS ONE, 14(11), [e0223248]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223248
Verwijmeren, M., Smit, C., Bautista, S., Wassen, M. J., & Rietkerk, M. (2019). Combined grazing and drought stress alter the outcome of nurse:beneficiary interactions in a semi-arid ecosystem. Ecosystems, 22(6), 1295-1307. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-019-00336-2
Lagendijk, D. D. G., Howison, R. A., Esselink, P., & Smit, C. (2019). Grazing as a conservation management tool: Responses of voles to grazer species and densities. Basic and Applied Ecology, 34, 36-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2018.10.007
Kuijper, D. P. J., Churski, M., Trouwborst, A., Heurich, M., Smit, C., Kerley, G. I. H., & Cromsigt, J. P. G. M. (2019). Keep the wolf from the door: How to conserve wolves in Europe's human-dominated landscapes? Biological Conservation, 235, 102-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.04.004
Chen, Q., Howison, R. A., Bakker, J. P., Alberti, J., Kuijper, D. P. J., Olff, H., & Smit, C. (2019). Small herbivores slow down species loss up to 22 years but only at early successional stage. Journal of Ecology, 107, 2688-2696. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13236

2018

van Ginkel, H. A. L., Kuijper, D. P. J., Schotanus, J., & Smit, C. (2019). Wolves and tree logs: Landscape-scale and fine-scale risk factors interactively influence tree regeneration. Ecosystems, 22(1), 202-212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-018-0263-z
Koerner, S. E., Smith, M. D., Burkepile, D. E., Hanan, N. P., Avolio, M. L., Collins, S. L., Knapp, A. K., Lemoine, N. P., Forrestel, E. J., Eby, S., Thompson, D. I., Aguado-Santacruz, G. A., Anderson, J. P., Anderson, T. M., Angassa, A., Bagchi, S., Bakker, E. S., Bastin, G., Baur, L. E., ... Smit, C. (2018). Change in dominance determines herbivore effects on plant biodiversity. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2, 1925-1932. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0696-y
Mueller, P., Schile-Beers, L. M., Mozdzer, T. J., Chmura, G. L., Dinter, T., Kuzyakov, Y., de Groot, A. V., Esselink, P., Smit, C., D'Alpaos, A., Ibanez, C., Lazarus, M., Neumeier, U., Johnson, B. J., Baldwin, A. H., Yarwood, S. A., Montemayor, D. I., Yang, Z., Wu, J., ... Nolte, S. (2018). Global-change effects on early-stage decomposition processes in tidal wetlands: Implications from a global survey using standardized litter. Biogeosciences, 15(10), 3189-3202. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-3189-2018
Verkuil, Y. I., van Guldener, W. E. A., Lagendijk, D. D. G., & Smit, C. (2018). Molecular identification of temperate Cricetidae and Muridae rodent species using fecal samples collected in a natural habitat. Mammal Research, 63(3), 379-385. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-018-0359-z
Li, X., Zhong, Z., Sanders, D., Smit, C., Wang, D., Nummi, P., Zhu, Y., Wang, L., Zhu, H., & Hassan, N. (2018). Reciprocal facilitation between large herbivores and ants in a semi-arid grassland. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 285(1888), [20181665]. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1665

2017

Nolte, S., Van der Weyde, C., Esselink, P., Smit, C., Van Wieren, S. E., & Bakker, J. P. (2017). Behaviour of horses and cattle at two stocking densities in a coastal salt marsh. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 21(3), 369-379. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-017-0515-7
Howison, R. A., Olff, H., van de Koppel, J., & Smit, C. (2017). Biotically driven vegetation mosaics in grazing ecosystems: The battle between bioturbation and biocompaction. Ecological monographs, 87(3), 363-378. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecm.1259
Garbutt, A., de Groot, A., Smit, C., & Petillon, J. (2017). European salt marshes: Ecology and conservation in a changing world. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 21(3), 405-408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-017-0524-6
Alberti, J., Bakker, E. S., van Klink, R., Olff, H., & Smit, C. (2017). Herbivore exclusion promotes a more stochastic plant community assembly in a natural grassland. Ecology, 98(4), 961-970. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1741
Dillen, M., Smit, C., & Verheyen, K. (2017). How does neighbourhood tree species composition affect growth characteristics of oak saplings? Forest ecology and management, 401, 177-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.07.016
Bakker, J. P., de Vries, Y., & Smit, C. (2017). Langjarige bemestingsexperimenten in graslanden van Loefvledder, Drentsche Aa. De Levende Natuur, 118(5), 193-199. http://www.delevendenatuur.nl/tijdschrift.php?editie=11224
Lagendijk, D. D. G., Howison, R. A., Esselink, P., Ubels, R., & Smit, C. (2017). Rotation grazing as a conservation management tool: Vegetation changes after six years of application in a salt marsh ecosystem. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 246, 361-366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2017.05.023
Dillen, M., Smit, C., Buyse, M., Höfte, M., De Clercq, P., & Verheyen, K. (2017). Stronger diversity effects with increased environmental stress: A study of multitrophic interactions between oak, powdery mildew and ladybirds. PLoS ONE, 12(4), [e0176104]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176104

2016

Meijer, K., Schilthuizen, M., Beukeboom, L., & Smit, C. (2016). A review and meta-analysis of the enemy release hypothesis in plant-herbivorous insect systems. PeerJ, 4, [e2778]. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2778
van Klink, R., Nolte, S., Mandema, F., Lagendijk, D. D. G., WallisDeVries, M. F., Bakker, J. P., Esselink, P., & Smit, C. (2016). Effects of grazing management on biodiversity across trophic levels: The importance of livestock species and stocking density in salt marshes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 235, 329-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.11.001
Howison, R. A., Olff, H., van Puijenbroek, M. E. B., & Smit, C. (2016). Facultative grazing and bioturbation by macrodetritivores alter saltmarsh plant-plant interactions under stress. Journal of Ecology, 104(4), 1149-1157. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12581
Meijer, K., Smit, C., Schilthuizen, M., & Beukeboom, L. W. (2016). Fitness benefits of the fruit fly Rhagoletis alternata on a non-native rose host. Oecologia, 181(1), 185-192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-015-3524-y
Dillen, M., Kris, V., & Smit, C. (2016). Identity rather than richness drives local neighbourhood species composition effects on oak sapling growth in a young forest. Forest ecology and management, 380, 274-284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.09.004
Schilthuizen, M., Santos Pimenta, L. P., Lammers, Y., Steenbergen, P. J., Flohil, M., Beveridge, N. G. P., van Duijn, P. T., Meulblok, M. M., Sosef, N., van de Ven, R., Werring, R., Beentjes, K. K., Meijer, K., Vos, R. A., Vrieling, K., Gravendeel, B., Choi, Y., Verpoorte, R., Smit, C., & Beukeboom, L. W. (2016). Incorporation of an invasive plant into a native insect herbivore food web. PeerJ, 4, [e1954]. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1954
van Klink, R., Ruifrok, J. L., & Smit, C. (2016). Rewilding with large herbivores: Direct effects and edge effects of grazing refuges on plant and invertebrate communities. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 234, 81-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.01.050
Howison, R. A., Berg, M. P., Smit, C., van Dijk, K., & Olff, H. (2016). The importance of coprophagous macrodetritivores for the maintenance of vegetation heterogeneity in an African Savannah. Ecosystems, 19(4), 674-684. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-016-9960-7

2015

Ruifrok, J. L., Janzen, T., Kuijper, D. P. J., Rietkerk, M., Olff, H., & Smit, C. (2015). Cyclical succession in grazed ecosystems: The importance of interactions between different-sized herbivores and different-sized predators. Theoretical Population Biology, 101, 31-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tpb.2015.02.001
Kromkamp, N., & Smit, C. (2015). De terugkeer van de jeneverbes? De Levende Natuur.
Bakker, J. P., de Vries, Y., & Smit, C. (2015). Effectiviteit van vervolgbeheer na afplaggen van voedselrijk grasland in het Drentsche Aa-gebied. Stratiotes, 48, 5-14.
Nolte, S., Esselink, P., Bakker, J. P., & Smit, C. (2015). Effects of livestock species and stocking density on accretion rates in grazed salt marshes. Estuarine coastal and shelf science, 152, 109-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2014.11.012
Cromsigt, J., Kemp, Y., Linnartz, L., Smit, C., Voeten, M., & Wassen, M. (2015). Ervaringen uit het Kraansvlak: Lessen voor toekomstige wisent introducties. Vakblad Natuur, Bos en Landschap.
Howison, R. A., Olff, H., Steever, R., & Smit, C. (2015). Large herbivores change the direction of interactions within plant communities along a salt marsh stress gradient. Journal of Vegetation Science, 26(6), 1159-1170. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12317
Meijer, K., Zemel, H., Chiba, S., Smit, C., Beukeboom, L. W., & Schilthuizen, M. (2015). Phytophagous insects on native and non-native host plants: Combining the community approach and the biogeographical approach. PLoS ONE, 10(5), [e0125607]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125607
Smit, C., Ruifrok, J. L., van Klink, R., & Olff, H. (2015). Rewilding with large herbivores: The importance of grazing refuges for sapling establishment and wood-pasture formation. Biological Conservation, 182, 134-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.11.047
van Klink, R., Ruifrok, J., & Smit, C. (2015). Verjonging van bomen en struiken en de diversiteit van planten en ongewervelden in de Oostvaardersplassen. De Levende Natuur, 116(4), 163-169.

2014

Soliveres, S., Smit, C., & Maestre, F. T. (2015). Moving forward on facilitation research: Response to changing environments and effects on the diversity, functioning and evolution of plant communities. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 90(1), 297-313. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12110
Verwijmeren, M., Rietkerk, M., Bautista, S., Mayor, A. G., Wassen, M. J., & Smit, C. (2014). Drought and grazing combined: Contrasting shifts in plant interactions at species pair and community level. Journal of Arid Environments, 111, 53-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2014.08.001
Nolte, S., Esselink, P., Smit, C., & Bakker, J. P. (2014). Herbivore species and density affect vegetation-structure patchiness in salt marshes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 185, 41-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.12.010
Ruifrok, J. L., Postma, F., Olff, H., & Smit, C. (2014). Scale-dependent effects of grazing and topographic heterogeneity on plant species richness in a Dutch salt marsh ecosystem. Applied Vegetation Science, 17(4), 615-624. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12107
Smit, C. (2014). Vestigingsmogelijkheden van houtige gewassen in de Oostvaardersplassen. Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Kuijper, D. P. J., Verwijmeren, M., Churski, M., Zbyryt, A., Schmidt, K., Jędrzejewska, B., & Smit, C. (2014). What cues do ungulates use to assess predation risk in dense temperate forests? PLoS ONE, 9(1), [e84607]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084607

2013

Bakker, J. P., De Vries, Y., & Smit, C. (2013). Hooien met verschillende frequentie: 40 jaar verschralend beheer. De Levende Natuur, 114, 244-245.
Kalwij, J. M., & Smit, C. (2013). How authors can maximise the chance of manuscript acceptance and article visibility. Learned publishing, 26(1), 28-31. https://doi.org/10.1087/20130106
Verwijmeren, M., Rietkerk, M., Wassen, M. J., & Smit, C. (2013). Interspecific facilitation and critical transitions in arid ecosystems. Oikos, 122(3), 341-347. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.00111.x
Langbroek, E., Bakker, C., & Smit, C. (2013). Ruimte voor de rivier: Ontwikkelingen van de vegetatiestructuur in de Blauwe Kamer. De Levende Natuur.
van Ginkel, H. A. L., Kuijper, D. P. J., Churski, M., Zub, K., Szafranska, P., & Smit, C. (2013). Safe for saplings not safe for seeds: Quercus robur recruitment in relation to coarse woody debris in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland. Forest ecology and management, 304, 73-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.04.037
op de Hoek, T., Schrama, M., & Smit, C. (2013). Verwilderde katten op Schiermonnikoog. De Levende Natuur, 114(1).

2012

Smit, C., Kuijper, D. P. J., Prentice, D., Wassen, M. J., & Cromsigt, J. P. G. M. (2012). Coarse woody debris facilitates oak recruitment in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland. Forest ecology and management, 284, 133-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.07.052
van de Blaak, R., Linnartz , L., & Smit, C. (2012). Gaan wisenten en mensen samen? 5 jaar praktijk onderzoek uitgewerkt. Vakblad Natuur, Bos en Landschap, 9(7), 32-35. http://edepot.wur.nl/233335
Meijer, K., Smit, C., Beukeboom, L. W., & Schilthuizen, M. (2012). Native insects on non-native plants in The Netherlands: Curiosities or common practice? Entomologische Berichten, 72(6), 288-293.

2011

Smit, C. (2011). Desarrollo de un protocolo de seguimiento a largo plazo de los organismos clave para el funcionamiento de los bosques mediterráneos. In In: Ramírez, L. (Ed.), Proyectos de investigación en parques nacionales 2007-2010, Madrid
Smit, C., & Ruifrok, J. L. (2011). From protege to nurse plant: Establishment of thorny shrubs in grazed temperate woodlands. Journal of Vegetation Science, 22(3), 377-386. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2011.01264.x
Smit, C. (2011). Grote grazers in het Kotterbos en Oostvaardersbos: Effecten van het openstellen van de bossen rondom de Oostvaardersplassen voor rund, paard en edelhert op de bosvitaliteit; onderzoeksopzet en nulmeting. Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Bakker, J. P., de Vries, Y., & Smit, C. (2011). Het onverwacht ontstaan van een parkachtig landschap. De Levende Natuur, 112, 185-190.
Smit, C. (2011). Konijn en jeneverbes. De Levende Natuur.
Smit, C. (2011). Large herbivores as ‘Environmental Engineers’. In . In: Ungulate Management in Europe; Problems and Practices. Eds: M. Appolonio, R. Andersen and R. Putman
Verhulst, J., Kleijn, D., Loonen, W., Berendse, F., & Smit, C. (2011). Seasonal distribution of meadow birds in relation to in-field heterogeneity and management. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 142(3-4), 161-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2011.04.016
Scheper, J., & Smit, C. (2011). The role of rodents in the seed fate of a thorny shrub in an ancient wood pasture. Acta oecologica-International journal of ecology, 37(2), 133-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2011.01.007
Smit, C., & Verwijmeren, M. (2011). Tree-shrub associations in grazed woodlands: First rodents, then cattle? Plant ecology, 212(3), 483-493. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-010-9839-1

2010

Smit, C., Bakker, E. S., Apol, M. E. F., & Olff, H. (2010). Effects of cattle and rabbit grazing on clonal expansion of spiny shrubs in wood-pastures. Basic and Applied Ecology, 11(8), 685-692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2010.08.010

2009

Smit, C. (2009). Begrazing, facilitatie en schuivende mozaïken. Landschap - Tijdschrift voor landschapsonderzoek, 4.
Vandenberghe, C., Smit, C., Pohl, M., Buttler, A., & Frelechoux, F. (2009). Does the strength of facilitation by nurse shrubs depend on grazing resistance of tree saplings? Basic and Applied Ecology, 10(5), 427-436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2008.08.009
Smit, C., Diaz, M., & Jansen, P. (2009). Establishment limitation of holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp ballota (Desf.) Samp.) in a Mediterranean savanna - forest ecosystem. Annals of forest science, 66(5), [511]. https://doi.org/10.1051/forest/2009028
Smit, C., Rietkerk, M., & Wassen, M. J. (2009). Inclusion of biotic stress (consumer pressure) alters predictions from the stress gradient hypothesis. Journal of Ecology, 97(6), 1215-1219. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01555.x
Smit, C., & Ruifrok, J. L. (2009). Verschuivende mozaïeken de rol van kleine zoogdieren. Landschap, 26(4), 189-197.

2008

Smit, C., den Ouden, J., & Diaz, M. (2008). Facilitation of Quercus ilex recruitment by shrubs in Mediterranean open woodlands. Journal of Vegetation Science, 19(2), 193-200. https://doi.org/10.3170/2007-8-18352
Smit, C. (2008). Ruimte voor de wisent in de lage landen. De Levende Natuur, 109.

2007

Smit, C. (2007). Desarrollo de un protocolo de seguimiento a largo plazo de los organismos clave para el funcionamiento de los bosques mediterráneos. In In: Ramírez, L. (Ed.), Proyectos de investigación en parques nacionales 2003-2006, Madrid
Smit, C., Vandenberghe, C., den Ouden, J., & Mueller-Schaerer, H. (2007). Nurse plants, tree saplings and grazing pressure: Changes in facilitation along a biotic environmental gradient. Oecologia, 152(2), 265-273. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-006-0650-6

2006

Smit, C. (2006). Peer review: Time for a change? BioScience, 56(9), 712-713. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[712:PRTFAC]2.0.CO;2
Smit, C., Gusberti, M., & Mueller-Schaerer, H. (2006). Safe for saplings; safe for seeds? Forest ecology and management, 237(1-3), 471-477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.09.069
Smit, C., den Ouden, J., & Muller-Scharer, H. (2006). Unpalatable plants facilitate tree sapling survival in wooded pastures. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43(2), 305-312. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01147.x

2005

Smit, C. (2005). Facilitation of tree regeneration in pasture woodlands. In In: Silvopastoralism and Sustainable Land Management. Eds. M.R. Mosquera Losada, A. Riguerio & J. Mc Adam. CABI
Smit, C. (2005). Facilitation of tree regeneration in wood pastures.
Smit, C., Beguin, D., Buttler, A., & Muller-Scharer, H. (2005). Safe sites for tree regeneration in wooded pastures: A case of associational resistance? Journal of Vegetation Science, 16(2), 209-214. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2005.tb02357.x

2001

Smit, C. (2001). Effecten van militair gebruik en recreatie op flora en fauna: Een literatuuronderzoek. Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuurbeheer en Visserij.
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