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Mulder, Prof. Machiel

Machiel Mulder
Machiel Mulder

Machiel Mulder is Professor of Regulation of Energy Markets in the Faculty of Economics and Business. He studies the functioning of energy markets and energy policy. One of Mulder's conclusions was that the demand for gas in the Netherlands will rise steeply in the years to come because of the electrification of homes and transport. According to Mulder, it is important to uphold the basic principles of the organization of the European electricity market to keep the costs of the required energy transition to a minimum.

Mulder studied economics at the University of Groningen and was awarded a PhD by Erasmus University Rotterdam for a thesis entitled ‘Bedrijfstakverkenning en financiële analyse: een simulatiemodel voor de glastuinbouw’ (Sector exploration and financial analysis: a simulation model for horticulture under glass). He then worked as head of the Energy department at the CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, deputy chief economist of the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) and specialist in Regulation Economics at the Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM).

In 2015, Mulder was awarded a grant by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) to conduct research into changes in the electricity market caused by renewable energy. Two years later, he was appointed to the board of the global association of professionals, the International Association for Energy Economics (IAEE), and organized the 41st International IAEE conference in Groningen on the association’s behalf in 2018. In addition, Mulder is director of the Groningen Centre for Energy Economics Research (CEER) and chair of the Benelux Association for Energy Economics (BAEE).

Article Volkskrant
Article Volkskrant

2021

Trinks, A., Ibikunle, G., Mulder, M., & Scholtens, B. (Accepted/In press). Carbon intensity and the cost of equity capital. The Energy Journal, 43(2). https://doi.org/10.5547/01956574.43.2.atri
Keller, J. T., Kuper, G. H., & Mulder, M. (2021). Challenging Natural Monopolies: Assessing Market Power of Gas Transmission System Operators for Cross-Border Capacity. (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 2021003-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
Hulshof, D., Mulder, M., & Perey, P. (2021). Giving hydrogen a jump start: lessons learned from Dutch policies in other industries. (CEER Policy Paper; No. 9). Centre for Energy Economics Research (CEER).
Mulder, M. (2021, Jan 20). Opmerkingen op de reacties van Rotmans en Erickson op het onderzoek van Mulder et al. (2020).
Li, X., & Mulder, M. (2021). Value of Power-to-Gas as a Flexibility Option in Integrated Electricity and Hydrogen Markets. (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 2021004-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school.

2020

Trinks, A., Mulder, M., & Scholtens, B. (2020). An Efficiency Perspective on Carbon Emissions and Financial Performance. Ecological Economics, 175, [106632]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106632
Mulder, M., Hulshof, D., Perey, P., & Rekker, L. (2020). Bedrijfsspecifieke beperking in exploratie en productie en het effect op het wereldwijde verbruik van fossiele energie: een analyse toegespitst op de positie van Shell. (CEER - Policy Papers; Vol. 8). Centre for Energy Economics Research (CEER).
Mulder, M., & Perey, P. (2020, Apr 29). Beoordeling aanvraag Green Shipping: advies aan de Waddenacademie.
Keller, J. T., Kuper, G. H., & Mulder, M. (2020). Competition under revenue-cap regulation with efficiency benchmarking: tariff related incentives for gas transmission system operators in merged markets. Journal of Regulatory Economics, 58(2-3), 141-165. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11149-020-09414-z
Mulder, M. (2020). Dynamic grid tariffs as efficient and fair solutions to grid congestions. Oxford Energy Forum, 2020(124), 28-31.
Hulshof, D., Mulder, M., & Perey, P. (2020, Apr 29). Enkele kanttekeningen bij vormgeving subsidies duurzame energie transitie: Position paper over de SDE++ regeling voor Tweede Kamer commissie Economische Zaken en Klimaat.
Karsten, E., & Mulder, M. (2020). Hernieuwbare stroom kan voorlopig niet zonder subsidie. ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten. https://esb.nu/esb/20060099/hernieuwbare-stroom-kan-voorlopig-niet-zonder-subsidie
Nieuwenburg, M., Smit, E., & Mulder, M. (2020). Performance of Dutch energy-distribution operators: an assessment of costs, quality and financial position since 2010. (CEER Policy Papers; No. 7). Centre for Energy Economics Research (CEER).
Mulder, M., & Perey, P. (2020). Position Paper over Kabinetsvisie Waterstof: inbreng voor Tweede Kamer Commissie Economische Zaken en Klimaat. Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Mulder, M., Hulshof, D., Perey, P., & Rekker, L. (2020). Reactie op commentaar van Peter Erickson op Mulder et. al. (2020). (CEER Policy Paper ; No. 8). Centre for Energy Economics Research (CEER).
Mulder, M. (2020). Regulation of Energy Markets: Economic Mechanisms and Policy Evaluation. (1 ed.) (Lecture Notes in Energy; Vol. 80). Springer International Publisher. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58319-4
Mulder, M. (2020, Apr 21). Regulatory challenges to foster cross-border trade in electricity systems with increasing shares of renewables. EnergyPost. EU. https://energypost.eu/regulatory-challenges-to-cross-border-trade/
Hulshof, D., & Mulder, M. (2020). The impact of renewable energy use on firm profit. Energy Economics, 92, [104957]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2020.104957
Mulder, M. (2020). Vermindering van aardgasverbruik van woningen in een breder economisch perspectief. In “ De opgave waar we voor staan is groot en complex” : Essaybundel over aardgasvrije wijken door negen professoren (pp. 74-83). Programma Aardgasvrije Wijken. https://www.aardgasvrijewijken.nl/nieuws/1561408.aspx?t=Essay+Machiel+Mulder%3a+Vermindering+van+aardgasverbruik+van+woningen
Hulshof, D., & Mulder, M. (2020). Willingness to Pay for CO2 Emission Reductions in Passenger Car Transport. Environmental & Resource Economics, 75(4), 899–929. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-020-00411-6

2019

Jafarian, M., Scherpen, J. M. A., Loeff, K., Mulder, M., & Aiello, M. (2020). A combined nodal and uniform pricing mechanism for congestion management in distribution power networks. Electric Power Systems Research, 180, [106088]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2019.106088
Kraal, D., Mulder, M., & Perey, P. (2020). Taxation and Pricing of Natural Gas: The Dutch transition to gas market hub pricing and lessons for Australia’s integrated gas projects. University of New South Wales Law Journal, 43(1), 39-81.
Keller, J., Kuper, G., & Mulder, M. (2019). Competition under Regulation: Do Regulated Gas Transmission System Operators in Merged Markets Compete on Network Tariffs? (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 2019008-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
Moraga González, J., Mulder, M., & Perey, P. (2019). Future markets for renewable gases and hydrogen: what would be the optimal regulatory provisions? CERRE - Centre on Regulation in Europe. https://www.cerre.eu/publications/future-markets-renewable-gases-and-hydrogen
Mulder, M., & Perey, P. (2019). Groene waterstof laat zich lastig rendabel maken. ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten, 2019. https://esb.nu/esb/20056504/groene-waterstof-laat-zich-lastig-rendabel-maken
Mulder, M. (2019). Hernieuwbare stroom, netwerk stabiliteit en opslag: hoe zorgt de markt voor flexibiliteit? (UGBS White Paper). University of Groningen Business School (UGBS). https://www.rug.nl/feb-for-business/business-school/executive-programmas/energietransitie/forms/download-het-whitepaper?utm_source=LK&utm_medium=post&utm_campaign=ugbs-et-whitepaper1-machiel-okt19
Mulder, M. (2019, Sep 10). Hoe wordt waterstof echt groen en wat doen we in de tussentijd? (blog). Centre for Energy Economics Research (CEER). https://www.rug.nl/ceer/blog/hoe-wordt-waterstof-echt-groen-en-wat-doen-we-in-de-tussentijd-10-09-2019
Mulder, M. (2019). Kolencentrales in de polder: private en publieke belangen in het Energieakkoord. RegelMaat, 34(2), 112-125. https://doi.org/10.5553/RM/0920055X2019034002003
Keller, J. T., Kuper, G. H., & Mulder, M. (2019). Mergers of Germany's natural gas market areas: Is transmission capacity booked efficiently? Utilities Policy, 56, 104-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jup.2018.11.005
Bartelet, H., & Mulder, M. (2019). Natural Gas markets in the European Union: Testing Resilience. Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy, 9(1), 185-205. https://doi.org/10.5547/2160-5890.8.2.hbar
Mulder, M., Perey, P. L., & Moraga , J. L. (2019). Outlook for a Dutch hydrogen market: economic conditions and scenarois. (CEER Policy Papers; No. 5). Centre for Energy Economics Research, University of Groningen, . https://www.rug.nl/ceer/blog/ceer_policypaper_5_web.pdf
Hulshof, D., Jepma, C., & Mulder, M. (2019). Performance of markets for European renewable energy certificates. Energy Policy, 128, 697-710. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2019.01.051
Hulshof, D., & Mulder, M. (2019). Renewable Energy Use as Environmental CSR Behavior and the Impact on Firm Profit. (SOM Research Reports; No. 2019009-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
Mulder, M. (2019, Apr 14). Substantieel waterbedeffect binnen emissiehandelssysteem. ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten. https://esb.nu/blog/20051597/substantieel-waterbedeffect-binnen-emissiehandelssysteem
Mulder, M., & Willems, B. (2019). The Dutch retail electricity market. Energy Policy, 127, 228-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.12.010

2018

Moraga González, J., & Mulder, M. (2018). Electrification of heating and transport: a scenario analysis up to 2050. (CEER Policy Papers; No. 2). Centre for Energy Economics Research, University of Groningen, .
Mulder, M., & Zeng, Y. (2018). Exploring Interaction Effects of Climate Policies: a Model Analysis of the Power Market. Resource and Energy Economics, 54 , 165–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reseneeco.2018.09.002
Trinks, A., Scholtens, B., Mulder, M., & Dam, L. (2018). Fossil Fuel Divestment and Portfolio Performance. Ecological Economics, 146, 740-748. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.11.036
Moraga González, J., le Coq, C., Mulder, M., & Schwenen, S. (2018). Gas and the electrification of heating & transport: scenarios for 2050. CERRE - Centre on Regulation in Europe. http://www.cerre.eu/publications/gas-and-electrification-heating-transport-scenarios-2050
Mulder, M., & Perey, P. (Eds.) (2018). Gas production and earthquakes in Groningen: reflection on economic and social consequences. (CEER Policy Papers; Vol. 3). Centre for Energy Economics Research, University of Groningen, .
Mulder, M., & Perey, P. (2018). Groningen gas field in the European gas market. In M. Mulder, & P. Perey (Eds.), Gas production and earthquakes in Groningen: reflection on economic and social consequences (CEER Policy papers; Vol. 3). Centre for Energy Economics Research, University of Groningen, .
Mulder, M. (2018). Klimaatberaad koerst af op ondoelmatig beleid. ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten, 103(4768), 569-573. https://esb.nu/esb/20046711/klimaatberaad-koerst-af-op-ondoelmatig-beleid
Mulder, M. (2018). Merchant investments in interconnections in the European electricity market: the AQUIND case. (CEER policy Paper; No. 4). Centre for Energy Economics Research, University of Groningen, .
Keller, J. T., Kuper, G. H., & Mulder, M. (2018). Mergers of Gas Market Areas and Competition amongst Transmission System Operators: Evidence on Booking Behaviour in the German Markets. (SOM Research Report; Vol. 2018, No. 001). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
Hulshof, D., Jepma, C., & Mulder, M. (2018). Performance of Markets for European Renewable Energy Certificates. (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 2018, No. 005). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
van Leeuwen, C., & Mulder, M. (2018). Power-to-gas in electricity markets dominated by renewables. Applied Energy, 232, 258-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.217
Huizingh, E., Mulder, F., & Mulder, M. (2018). Towards Energy Savings: Stimulating Households to Invest in Retrofit Measures. In I. Bitran, S. Conn, E. Huizingh, O. Kokshagina, M. Torkkeli, & M. Tynnhammar (Eds.), Proceedings of ISPIM Connects Fukuoka: Solving Challenges Through Innovation ISPIM.
Koopmans, C., Mulder, M., & Tieben, B. (2018). Verkenning MKBA werkwijzer Energie. (SEO-rapport; No. 2018-23). SEO, Foundation for Economic Research of the University of Amsterdam.

2017

Neuteleers, S., Mulder, M., & Hindriks, F. (2017). Assessing fairness of dynamic grid tariffs. Energy Policy, 108, 111-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2017.05.028
Mulder, M., & Scholtens, B. (2017). Corrigendum to 'A plant-level analysis of the spill-over effects of the German Energiewende' [Appl. Energy 183 (2016) 1259–1271]. Applied Energy, 190, 1316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.01.094
Dijkstra, P. T., Haan, M. A., & Mulder, M. (2017). Design of Yardstick Competition and Consumer Prices: Experimental Evidence. Energy Economics, 66, 261-271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2017.06.016
Trinks, A., Scholtens, B., Mulder, M., & Dam, L. (2017). Divesting Fossil Fuels: The Implications for Investment Portfolios. (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 17001-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
Mulder, M., & Zomer, S. (2017). Dutch Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Broiler Welfare. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 20(2), 137-154. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888705.2017.1281134
Mulder, M. (2017). Energietransitie en elektriciteitsmarkt: verkenning van een gespannen relatie. (1 ed.) (CEER - Policy Papers; Vol. 1). Centre for Energy Economics Research, University of Groningen, . http://www.rug.nl/news-and-events/news/archief2017/nieuwsberichten/0309-energietransitie-en-elektriciteitsmarkt-machiel-mulder-rug-maart2017.pdf
Mulder, M. (2017). Energy transition and the electricity market: an exploration of a electrifying relationship. (1 ed.) (CEER Policy Papers; Vol. 1). Centre for Energy Economics Research, University of Groningen, . http://www.rug.nl/news-and-events/news/archief2017/nieuwsberichten/energy-transition-and-the-electricity-market.pdf
Mulder, M., & Zeng, Y. (2017). Exploring Interaction Effects of Climate Polices: A Model Analysis of the Power Market. In IAEE Energy Forum (Singapore Issue ed., Vol. 2017, pp. 31-32) http://www.iaee.org/documents/2017EnergyForumSI.pdf
Trinks, A., Ibikunle, G., Mulder, M., & Scholtens, B. (2017). Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity and the Cost of Capital. (SOM Research Reports; No. 17017-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
Neuteleers, S., & Mulder, M. (2017). Hoe rechtvaardig zijn dynamische elektriciteitsnettarieven? Economisch Statistische Berichten, 102(4750), 292-295. https://esb.nu/esb/20027594/hoe-rechtvaardig-zijn-dynamische-elektriciteitsnettarieven
Dijkstra, P. T., Haan, M. A., & Mulder, M. (2017). Industry structure and collusion with uniform yardstick competition: Theory and experiments. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 50, 1-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijindorg.2016.10.001
Mulder, M., & Pangan, M. (2017). Influence of climate policy and market forces on coal-fired power plants: Evidence on the Dutch market over 2006-2014. Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy, 6(2), 87-110. https://doi.org/10.5547/2160-5890.6.2.mmul
Mulder, M. (2017). Lokaal opwekken in een internationale markt. Energie+, 2(June). https://www.energieplus.nl/
Mulder, M. (2017). Nationale energietransities in Europese energiemarkten. Economisch Statistische Berichten, 102(4754S), 77-81.
Mous, S., & Mulder, M. (2017). Schonere energiesector leidt tot meer vervuiling industrie. Economisch Statistische Berichten, 102(4754), 467-469.

2016

Mulder, M., & Scholtens, B. (2016). A plant-level analysis of the spill-over effects of the German Energiewende. Applied Energy, 183, 1259-1271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.09.056
Neuteleers, S., Mulder, M., & Hindriks, F. (2016). Assessing fairness of dynamic grid tariffs. (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 16014-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
Mulder, M., & Willems, B. (2016). Competition in Retail Electricity Markets: An Assessment of Ten Year Dutch Experience. (SOM Reseach Reports; Vol. 16012-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school. http://www.rug.nl/research/som-ri/som-research-reports/som-research-reports-2016/16012-eef-def.pdf
Mulder, M., & Zomer, S. P. E. (2016). Contribution of green labels in electricity retail markets to fostering renewable energy. Energy Policy, 99, 100-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2016.09.040
Kuper, G. H., & Mulder, M. (2016). Cross-border constraints, institutional changes and integration of the Dutch-German gas market. Energy Economics, 53, 182-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2014.09.009
Mulder, M. (2016). De markt voor groene stroom is een fictie. ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten, 101(4743), 718-721. https://esb.nu/esb/20020616/de-markt-voor-groene-stroom-is-een-fictie
Mulder, M. (2016). Economic Regulation of Energy Networks. In A. Beaulieu, J. Scherpen, & J. de Wilde (Eds.), Smart Grids from a Global Perspective: Bridging Old and New Energy Systems (pp. 113-128). (Power Systems). Springer. http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319280752
Zeng, Y., & Mulder, M. (2016). Exploring Interaction Effects of Climate Policies: a Model Analysis of the Power Market. (SOM Research Report; No. 16018 - EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school. http://www.rug.nl/research/som-ri/som-research-reports/som-research-reports-2016/16018-eef-def.pdf
Rook, M., & Mulder, M. (2016). Implicit premiums in renewable-energy support schemes. (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 16023-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
Mulder, M., & Pangan, M. (2016). Influence of Environmental Policy and Market Forces on Coal-fired Power Plants: Evidence on the Dutch Market over 2006-2014. (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 16017-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school. http://www.rug.nl/research/som-ri/som-research-reports/som-research-reports-2016/16017-eef-def.pdf
Hulshof, D., van der Maat, J-P., & Mulder, M. (2016). Market fundamentals, competition and natural-gas prices. Energy Policy, 94, 480-491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2015.12.016
Mulder, M., (2016). Prediction errors of determining the risk-free interest rate for the WACC for a 5-years regulatory period, (memorandum on tariff regulation for the Authority for Consumers & Markets (ACM)). https://www.acm.nl/nl/publicaties/publicatie/15674/Prediction-errors-of-determining-the-risk-free-interest-rate/

2015

Mulder, M., & Scholtens, L. (2015). A plant-level analysis of the spill-over effects of the German Energiewende. (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 15020-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
Mulder, M. (2015). Competition in the Dutch electricity wholesale market: An empirical analysis over 2006-2011. The Energy Journal, 36(2), 1-28. https://doi.org/10.5547/01956574.36.2.1
Kloosterhuis, E., & Mulder, M. (2015). Competition law and environmental protection: the Dutch agreement on coal-fired power plants. Journal of Competition Law & Economics, 11(4), 855-880. https://doi.org/10.1093/joclec/nhv017
Zomer, S., Benning, T., Leenheer, J., & Mulder, M. (2015). De betalingsbereidheid van consumenten voor dierenwelzijn. ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten, 100(4703), 84-87.
Dijkstra, P., Haan, M., & Mulder, M. (2015). Design of yardstick competition and consumer prices: Experimental evidence. (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 15004-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
Mulder, M., Petrikaite, V., & Scholtens, B. (2015). Distributed energy generation techniques and the competitive fringe effect in electricity markets. Resource and Energy Economics, 42, 125-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reseneeco.2015.07.004
Huizingh, E., & Mulder, M. (2015). Effectiveness of regulatory interventions on firm behavior: a randomized field experiment with e-commerce firms. Small Business Economics, 45(4), 825-840. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-015-9666-9
Mulder, M. (2015). Is minder gas winnen wel verstandig? Sociale Vraagstukken. http://www.socialevraagstukken.nl/site/2015/05/15/is-minder-gas-winnen-wel-verstandig/
Mulder, M., & Stil, R. (2015). Reguleren van netwerksectoren als marktproces. Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, 6(1), 57-60. https://doi.org/10.5553/TvT/187987052015006001005
Schipperus, O. T., & Mulder, M. (2015). The effectiveness of policies to transform a gas-exporting country into a gas-transit country: The case of The Netherlands. Energy Policy, 84, 117-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2015.04.026

2014

Mandil, C., Bressand, A., van der Linde, C., Luciani, G., McNaughton, J., & Mulder, M. (2014). A new European Energy Policy? Assessment and proposals. Synopia.
Mulder, M. (2014). Balanceren in onzekerheid: Zoektocht naar de optimale regulering (Oratie). Stichting Energy Academy Europe. http://www.rug.nl/staff/machiel.mulder/oratie-machiel-mulder.pdf
Mulder, M. (2014). Balanceren in onzekerheid: zoektocht naar de optimale regulering (bewerkte versie oratie). TPEdigitaal, 8(3), 128-145. http://www.tpedigitaal.nl/assets/static/Mulder-3-2014.pdf
Mulder, M. (2014). Balanceren in onzekerheid; zoektocht naar de optimale regulering (ingekorte versie van oratie). Eemsdelta Kringen, (3), 28-31.
Huisman, R., Jepma, C., & Mulder, M. (2014). Canon Energie-Economie. TEO Tijdschrift voor het Economisch Onderwijs , 114(6), 4-8.
Huisman, R., Jepma, C., & Mulder, M. (2014). Canon Energie-economie. ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten, 99(4694), 598-603. http://www.economie.nl/artikel/canon-deel-10-energie-economie
Mulder, M. (2014). De relatie tussen consumenten en energiemarkt onder spanning. ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten, 99(4683S), 50-55.
Mulder, M., Zomer, S., Benning, T., & Leenheen, J. (2014). Economische effecten van 'Kip van Morgen': kosten en baten voor consumenten van een collectieve afspraak in de pluimveehouderij. (Economisch Bureau; No. 2014-01). Authority for Consumers & Markets.
Huizingh, E., & Mulder, M. (2014). Effectiveness of regulatory interventions on firm behavior: a randomized field experiment with e-commerce firms. (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 14011-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school. http://som.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/reports/2014/14011-EEF/
Dijkstra, P., Haan, M. A., & Mulder, M. (2014). Industry structure and collusion with uniform yardstick competition: theory and experiments. (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 14010-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
Mulder, M. (2014). Regulering van energienetwerken op zee. ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten, 99(4685), 315-318.
Mulder, M. (2014). The impact of concentration and regulation on competition in the Dutch mortgage market. Journal of Competition Law & Economics, 10(4), 795-817. https://doi.org/10.1093/joclec/nhu008
Mulder, M. (2014). Zoektocht naar de optimale regulering van energiemarkten (ingekorte versie van oratie). Nieuwsbrief Milieu en Economie. http://www.nieuwsbriefmilieueneconomie.nl/index.php/overheid/330-zoektocht-naar-de-optimale-regulering-van-energiemarkten

2013

Kuper, G. H., & Mulder, M. (2013). Cross-border constraints, institutional changes and integration of the Dutch-German gas market. (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 13004-EEF). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
Kuper, G. H., & Mulder, M. (2013). Cross-border infrastructure constraints, regulatory measures and economic integration of the Dutch - German gas market. (SOM Research Reports; Vol. 13001-EFF). University of Groningen, SOM research school.
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