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Wubbo Ockels School for Energy and Climate Calendar Transformative Futures

Speakers and Author Biographies


Theme 1: Implementation, Governance and Planning: Climate and Sustainable Development

Prof. Ronald Holzhacker (University of Groningen - UG)

Transformative Futures: International Climate Change and Sustainable Development, Challenges of Implementation in Cities in Southeast Asia

Abstract: We are interested in focusing attention on synergies in the implementation of the climate change and sustainable development agendas facing cities in Southeast Asia. There are a set of ground-breaking international agreements and on-going processes in place for the world community to come together to address climate change and sustainable development, such as the Paris Climate Accords and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While we may begin with these international dialogues, agreements, and processes, here we turn attention toward implementation at the city level to make the necessary urgent, substantial progress on climate adaptation and sustainable development. The implementation of climate adaptation measures and sustainable development occurs in multi-level governance processes involving national, provincial and local governments in each State. These processes involve governments, public and private stakeholders, civil society organizations, and citizens. Shedding light on the intricate multi-level processes of implementation is crucial because ‘place specific context’ matters for the successful implementation of broad societal goals. We focus on the context of implementation of climate adaptation and sustainable development in Southeast Asia and ASEAN, with a broad range of societies, cultures, and levels of economic development, including rapidly growing Middle-Income Countries (MICs) with democratic traditions.

Key Words: climate change, sustainable development SDGs, Middle-Income Countries, transition planning, implementation, governance, democracy.

Author: Prof. dr. Ronald Holzhacker is Professor of ‘Comparative Multilevel Governance and Regional Structure’ in the Faculty of Spatial Science, Department of Spatial Planning and Environment, and the Faculty of Arts, Department of International Relations and International Organization, at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. He holds a PhD from the University of Michigan in political science, and a Juris Doctor from the University of Minnesota Law School. He is broadly interested in questions of governance and planning, sustainable development in cities, climate adaptation, and the interaction between civil society organizations and institutions in political systems. He is founding Director of the Groningen Research Centre for Southeast Asia and ASEAN (SEA ASEAN). He has led an inter-disciplinary team of scholars and 32 PhD researchers over the past decade engaged in theoretically driven comparative research focused on governance, societal impact, and sustainable society in Southeast Asia. His latest edited volume is Holzhacker and Agussalim (eds). Sustainable Development Goals in Southeast Asia and ASEAN: National and Regional Approaches (Leiden: Brill 2019).

A. Governance and Planning

(Assoc.) Prof. Dr Wijitbusaba (Ann) Marome (Thammasat University - TU)

Building Urban Climate Resilience for Bangkok Metropolitan Region: A Pathway towards Sustainable Cities

Abstract: Bangkok and its surrounding areas are experiencing a need to protect its people, natural and man-made resources and productive capacities in response to the impact of climate change and increasing numbers of extreme weather patterns and events. Due to the ‘three waters’ dimensions of runoff, rain, and sea level rise, along with its low-lying topography of 1.0-2.0 meters, much of the capital is prone to inundation. Bangkok must become more resilient to a wider profile of risks to be prepared for climate change. There is a need to reinvestigate the city as a system, bringing in urban development approaches from the past to the present into context to understand urban risks and promote a more inclusive and resilient urban future. This paper explores possible consequences from climate hazards (flood and drought) and to what extent these hazards are exacerbated by urban development factors such as land subsidence, infrastructure deficit. Moreover, this paper will also discuss how organised urban communities in Bangkok are planning for and responding to environmental and other crises, to identify approaches to fostering more sustainable, inclusive, and resilient urban development. Lower-income residents may not have access to support systems such as disaster insurance, so being able to use existing assets can offer an opportunity for successful coping and adaptation strategies to future shocks. The study explores what actions should be taken through urban development policy and planning, what are possible measures suggested to achieve a more sustainable, resilient, and inclusive cities.

Author: Dr. Wijitbusaba (Ann) Marome is an associate professor in urban planning at Thammasat University. She is also a founder and a head of Thammasat Urban Futures and Policy Research Unit since 2014. She received a PhD in planning from University College London, Faculty of the Built Environment, Development Planning Unit and a MSc in Gender and International Relations from University of Bristol, School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies, after her undergraduate degree in Bachelor in Architecture from Chulalongkorn University. She is an expert in urban development planning, urban resilience, climate change adaptation, sustainable city, future cities and urban governance. Her research experiences are world-wide with collaborations from the US, Germany, Canada, Japan and various institutions from Southeast Asia in order to build cities and local capacities to manage future changes. She also works closely with Thai government to promote sustainable and resilient cities including Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA), Community Organizations Development Institute (CODI), Department of Public Works and Town & Country Planning, and local governments.

Prof. Ir. Bakti (Bobi) Setiawan (Gadjah Mada University – UGM)

Sustainable Urban Transformation ifor Asean Cities

Abstract: Cities in ASEAN countries are heading in the cross road. It is projected that urbanization level in ASEAN would be about 55,60 percent in 2030, and this means that about 405 million people will reside and depend their lives on urban environment. While the growth of cities across ASEAN has been broadly linked to increase in prosperity and economic progress, the region’s rapid urbanization has also created many negative impacts. Several negative impacts have been documented such as: water and air pollutions, traffic congestions, urban heat islands, climate change, disasters, and social inequality. These problems must be addressed immediately and comprehensively as they are threatening the quality life of urban residents. This paper presents the state and problems of urbanization and urban development in ASEAN and suggests several recommendations to ensure sustainable urban transformation in that region. Cities in ASEAN have an important position and role in the context of global urbanization and urban development. Ensuring sustainable urban transformation in ASEAN can serve as a model for other cities in different parts of the world. The SDGS and the New Urban Agenda have already provided guidelines for various actions for urban development in ASEAN, but a longer visions as well as collaborative and concrete actions among ASEAN cities are needed to ensure sustainable urban transformation for the whole ASEAN cities.

Keywords: ASEAN, sustainable, urban transformation

Author: Prof. Ir. Bakti (Bobi) Setiawan MA., PhD. is professor in urban planning, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. He was graduated from master program in urban and regional planning, University of Waterloo, Canada and then PhD. Program in community and regional planning at the University of British Columbia, Canada in 1998. In 2001 he was appointed as the director for Centre for Environmental Studies, Gadjah Mada University – a leading research centre in the university. After four productive years in that centre, he was then elected as the director for the Graduate Program in Urban and Regional Planning, Department of Architecture and Planning. In 2010, he got a promotion as professor in urban planning from Gadjah Mada University. Besides teaching, he serves also as ad hoc-advisory board in several ministry at the central government in Indonesia, including Ministry of Public Works and Housing, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, and also Ministry of Education and Culture. AT present, he serves as the President of the Asian Planning School Association/APSA and also a member of the executive committee for Global Planning Education Association Network/GPEAN. His research interest covers several areas such as: urban housing, sustainable city, urban land management, environmental management, and community development.

Prof. Ir. Haryo Winarso, M.Eng, PhD (Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) Head of Urban Planning and Design Research Group)

U Develop- A new concept of Urban Rejuvenation for Implementing The NUA: Study for innercity rejuvenation in Badung City, Indonesia

Abstract: Rapid population growth in Indonesia has led to urbanization in cities. Like other cities in the Global South, the negative consequence of this urbanization is the growth of informal settlements in several large cities in Indonesia. The provision of adequate housing is a global agenda. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Target 11.1, is a call for governments to ensure access to safe and affordable housing by 2030, and this call was further repeated by the New Urban Agenda (NUA) in 2017 which envisions inclusive urban development. Efforts have been made to improve the slum into a better settlement. Indonesian Law No. 1 of 2011 mandates the improvement of slums through several approaches, including reconstructing slums houses, infrastructure, and economic development through several government programmes. The lastest programme currently being implemented is the KOTAKU programmes to achieve the government's goal of a city without slums. However, these programmes are criticised for not being integrated. Sector-oriented programmes run into small and individual programmes unlinked to other programmes; are mainly focusing on infrastructure improvement and are not able to provide additional affordable housing for the poor. Improvement programs that use Land Consolidation (LC) tools have also not been able to provide welfare for the poor, as gentrification often displaces the poor from the centre of activity in the city.

Based on those experiences, this paper presents a study, commissioned by the Bandung City Government, on the rejuvenation of inner-city slums using Vertical Land Consolidation (VLC) with a public-private and people partnership scheme (4P). The VLC-4P program encourages poor people who legally own land in slum areas to become shareholders of the redevelopment in the slum areas where they live. The low-income people who legally own land can use a portion of their land assets as equity for the area's redevelopment. The community formed a cooperative, which then, together with the private sector and government-owned company, and the community created a new company that would carry out rejuvenation and manage it after the completion of the construction process. In this way, eviction will not occur, and people will get additional income. We labelled this new approach UDevelop (Urban Development Through Local Partnership)

Author: Haryo Winarso is a Professor at the School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development, Institut Teknologi Bandung (SAPPD-ITB). Head of Urban Planning and Design Research Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung. His undergraduate degree is in Architecture from Gadjah Mada University. He obtained his M. Eng. degree from the Asian Institute of Technology and a PhD degree from the DPU, Bartlett School of Architecture and Planning, University College London. Haryo Winarso has more than 30 years of experience in undertaking research, consultancy, teaching, and training assignments nationally as well as internationally, including assignments to the USA, Singapore, Thailand, and Nepal, on urban land and housing-related issues. Undertaking several joint research funded by the World Bank, DFID, Government Agencies of Indonesia, Asian Development Bank, contributing papers in International and national seminars. He is the former Attaché of Education and Culture in the USA and the former president of ASPI (Indonesian Planning School Association). He teaches Planning Theory, Housing Policy, Land and Housing Development, Urban Design, and Housing to both undergraduates and graduates at the school. His recent publication includes (2022) Transportation Megaprojects: Paradoxes and Challenges in Planning Complex Projects, Journal of Regional and City Planning 33 (2), 14-28; (2021) Slum-upgrading through the physical or socio-economic improvement?. lessons from Bandung, Indonesia, Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 37 (2), 863-887; (2021) “ Extended Urbanization through Capital Centralization: Contract Farming in Palm Oil-Based Agro-industrialization”. Sustainability, Vol 13, Issue 18.

Prof. Johan Woltjer (UG)

Knowledge for Sustainable Cities across Southeast Asia

Abstract: The global understanding of processes relevant to creating sustainable cities has diversified globally. This paper reviews the varieties in the kinds of knowledge applied to sustainable cities and climate action, particularly in the context of Southeast Asia and Indonesia specifically. It is shown which kind of educational programs and learning processes feature at universities. The focus is also on typical narratives regarding urban climate action and sustainability. Knowledge-production processes across Southeast Asia are reflected in specific areas of engineering, disaster management and urban planning education. They also strongly emphasise social sustainability narratives, as well as the importance of sharing resources and local action.

Author: Professor Johan Woltjer is Dean and Professor of Urban Development and Planning at the Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Netherlands. He was previously at the University of Westminster, UK, University of Amsterdam and Twente University, Netherlands. Professor Woltjer focuses his substantive work on understanding international urban and regional development (particularly Europe and Asia), and capacities for water and infrastructure management in urban environments. Over the last 25 years, Professor Woltjer has held a wide range of leading international positions, in educational development and research networks (particularly in the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, Indonesia). He contributes an internationally comparative view to the field of urban studies, sustainable planning, water management, and development. The impact of his research is visible through funded projects, books and articles appearing in globally the highest-impact journals, and through policy advice on issues like sustainable cities, water resources and urban infrastructure. He has extensive leadership experience on university education processes, assessment and review, and for research projects across the world.

Prof. Jos Arts (UG)

Integrated Planning for Infrastructure and Spatial Development – connecting spatial functions and institutions sustainably

Abstract: Transport infrastructure is fundamental in structuring and connecting of cities and regions, and is an important driver for urbanisation. The (re)development and use of infrastructure creates major impacts, both positive (accessibility, socio-economic growth – wealth) and negative (noise, air, soil, water, nature, land-take, safety – health). However, the ‘gain and pain’ of infrastructure development is not evenly distributed amongst societal groups and places (local vs. regional, (inter)national). As a consequence, the planning of transport infrastructure is usually highly contested and cumbersome. In Southeast Asia, the need for careful planning of transport infrastructure is even more important as well as challenging, because of fast urbanisation and high economic dynamics (while infrastructure development is slow and costly), but also because of climate change, water, nature, social equity challenges (thereby closely relating to many SGDs). In order to deal more sustainably with all these challenges and the (deep) uncertainties they cause, more integrated and adaptive approaches of infrastructure and spatial development are needed that addresses both the interrelatedness of spatial functions (such as living, working, transporting) as well as the institutional interdependencies (between authorities, market and civil society). In planning practice, we see various, interconnected innovative approaches relating to: area-oriented infrastructure development (in which infrastructure and spatial development are combined by integrated design, and are a driver for (urban) transformation); multi-level governance arrangements (in which different levels of government, market parties and local communities engage and collaborate); and more strategy-led, programmatic approaches (which focus on long-term societal goals, go beyond ‘projectification’, and allow for adaptation). Such integrated, adaptive planning approaches are vital for achieving sustainable development in a networked society, but they are challenging themselves and require fundamental transformation of current planning. 

Key words: (transport)infrastructure; urban and regional development; functional interrelatedness; institutional interdependencies; governance and institutional arrangements; adaptive planning approaches.

Author: Jos Arts is full-professor in Environment and Infrastructure Planning, and Head of the Department of Spatial Planning and Environment, Faculty Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen (The Netherlands). He is also Extraordinary Professor at Northwest University, Unit Environmental Sciences and Management, Potchefstroom (South Africa). He has organized many international workshops, conferences and published widely about impact assessment, evaluation, environmental and water management, and spatial and infrastructure planning. His research focuses on institutional analysis and design for integrated planning approaches for sustainable infrastructure networks (transformation of physical networks and interdependent institutions).

B. Sustainable Development Goals

Chol Bunnag (TU)

Engagement of CSOs in Thailand’s SDGs implementation: status, challenges, and way forward

Abstract: Thailand is one of the UN member states that politically committed to achieve the 2030 Agenda. Since inclusive development is one of the key principles of the Agenda, which requires transformative partnership and multistakeholder engagement, engaging with Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) as one of the key development actors is crucial. This study aims to investigate the level of engagement of CSOs and challenges they experience in the attempt to engage in Thailand’s SDGs implementation. Employing mixed methods, this study conducted a survey with 22 CSOs and a focus group with representatives from 12 CSOs in 2021. Policy documents on SDGs were also reviewed. The key findings suggest that, at the policy level, no formal policy space for CSOs to participate in the overall SDG policy process existed. The formal policy space only exists in the implementation of each goal or target and at the local level. Although, the CSOs have been implementing sustainable development since before the 2030 Agenda, development finance that support initiatives of the CSOs has been decreasing in recent years. The government’s roles on the CSOs are increasingly controlling and regulating rather than facilitating. The way forward for more meaningful engagement of the CSOs requires adjustment from both sides. The government needs to perceive the CSOs as development partners rather than enemies and opens official policy space for CSOs in the overall SDG policy process. Innovative development financing mechanism is also needed to support their initiatives. The CSOs also need new and innovative business model that is financially sustainable. They also need to empirically assess and communicate impact of their works to gain more public support, which might open new opportunities for financial support. Lastly, forming alliances among themselves is also crucial for gaining political bargaining power and providing a contact point for the government.

Author: Assistant Professor Chol Bunnag obtained a bachelor’s degree in Economics from Thammasat University and a master’s in Development Economics from the UK. He is the founder and currently the director of SDG Move (Centre for SDG Research and Support), a research centre under Faculty of Economics, Thammasat University, conducting research and supporting the implementation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Thailand. He is also the manager of SDSN Thailand, which is a national network connecting with a global academic network for sustainable development, the SDSN (Sustainable Development Solutions Network).

Assistant Professor Chol Bunnag is an economist with interest in sustainable development, environmental management, agricultural and rural development, supporting system for SDG implementation and SDG governance. He is also one of a few scholars in Thailand who follows closely the SDG implementation in Thailand since the beginning.

Dyah Rahmawati Hizbaron (UGM)

SDGs & Risk Based Resource Management

Abstract: Sustainable Development Goals, Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation have mandated national government of Indonesia to fit the strategic regulation at all sectors. There are massive formats of responses to support the implementation of the mandates, either from the pragmatic levels, up to theoretical overviews. One of the solicited ideas is the Ecosystem Based Disaster Risk Reduction for infrastructure development in Indonesia. An example case of the rapid infrastructure development to connect South Sulawesi regions have been established since 2011, which currently not yet finished. The railway development connects two important nodes, such as Makassar and Parepare, and three districts, Barru, Maros and Pangkajene Kepulauan. Flood and landslide are exposing the area along the railway development. Therefore, the derivation of the land transport plan needs to be integrated with disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation which it will streamline the sustainable development goals.

Keywords: SDGS, ECODRR, infrastructure, vulnerability, Indonesia.

Author: Dr. Dyah Rahmawati Hizbaron, M.T, M.Sc is a lecturer at Faculty of Geography and Research Fellow at Research Centre for Disaster Universitas Gadjah Mada. She acts as Director for International Affairs at her Faculty (2012-2016), and is appointed as Vice Dean for Research, Community Services, Cooperation and Alumni of Faculty Geography Universitas Gadjah Mada (1st Term 2016-2021, 2nd Term 2021 – 2026). She gained her BA from the Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada majoring in Regional Development, and finalized her Master Program from the Institut Technology Bandung and the University of Groningen, majoring in Infrastructure and Environmental Planning. She gained her PhD. from the Universitas Gadjah Mada sandwich program with the University of Innsbruck, Austria, majoring in Environmental Science. Her main interest is disaster studies, especially vulnerability assessment, urban risk management, and to broaden coastal and watershed management.

Theme II: Climate Change and Sustainable Development Challenges

Dr. Seree Supratid (Rangsit University)

Bangkok and Metropolitan Area Flood Resilient Pathway Challenges

Abstract: Extreme rainfall and associated flooding are common during the summer monsoon season in Thailand. Bangkok and metropolitan are vulnerable to compound flood hazards, i.e. river flood, urban flood, and coastal flood. For the river flood : The 6-month accumulated rainfall during the monsoon season (May-October) play a major role and are found to increase significantly in the Chao Phraya River basin (8%, 13%, and 19% for the near- future (2015-2039), mid-future (2040-2069), and far-future period (2070-2099), respectively). For the urban flood : The daily maximum rainfall are also projected to increase in a similar magnitude. Therefore, the present drainage capacity will be faced with seriously insufficient capacity, resulting in higher urban flood risk, unless better flood management is undertaken. For the coastal flood : The relative sea level rise at the Chao Phraya River mouth is projected to increase with medium confidence (under SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5) emission scenarios about (1.681-1.983 m) in 2100. The Chao Phraya River Basin (CPRB) has been facing with frequent flood disasters (e.g. in 1995, 2006, and 2011). The great flood such as the 2011 flood (50-year return period) is estimated to be 10-year-year flood in a changing climate. This implies both higher and stronger frequency and magnitude of river flood from the upstream Chao Phraya River basin. All these compound flood hazards are investigated for the future using 2-d hydrodynamic model under CMIP6 climate change scenarios. Adaptation measures (both green and grey infrastructures) are examined under several significant challenging issues to fulfill the flood resilient pathway.

Key Words: Compound flood, Urban flood, River flood, Coastal flood, Adaptation measures, Flood resilient pathway

Author: Dr. Seree is Thailand’s leading disaster expert and flood analyst and played an active role in response to the flooding in Thailand in 2011. He also contributes to the 2015-2016 extreme droughts in Thailand. He is also a board member of the National Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Committee and has been participating in the government’s Strategic Planning Group on Water Resources Management and Asia & Pacific Planning group on Hazard and Disaster of ICSU since 2005. In 2010-2012 and 2018-present, he was appointed as Lead Author of SREX "Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation” and Assessment Report 6 (AR6), IPCC(WG2). Prior to this he was the Managing Director of the Sirindhorn International Environmental Park and the Governor of Provincial Water Works Authority of Thailand. He has a doctoral degree in Coastal engineering from the Tohoku University, Japan.

Prof. Klaus Hubacek (UG)

Approaches and system boundaries for urban carbon accounts and mitigation

Abstract: More than half of the global population now lives in cities, with the share of the urban population projected to further increase to about two-thirds by 2050. The majority of economic activities, 80% of global GDP, 60% to 80% of final energy consumption, and 75% of energy-related carbon emissions are related to urban activities. Therefore, cities are central to climate change mitigation. Given the fact that global supply chains play a significant role in urban activities, cities predominantly rely on their hinterlands to supply the resources they need. Thus, it is important to distinguish between different scopes of urban emissions. Different accounting scopes may lead to significant differences in the emission patterns of cities. They may greatly change the interpretation of the success of cities' carbon mitigation efforts, contributing to a long-standing debate regarding a possible overestimation of cities' contribution to emissions and acknowledging the importance of system boundaries in carbon footprint accounting. We show how the choice of a footprint metric will influence the outcome of carbon accounting and has exciting implications for climate change governance, mitigation policies, and policy evaluation.

Author: Klaus Hubacek is a Professor in Science, Technology and Society at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. He is chair of the department Integrated Research on Energy, Environment and Society. His research focuses on conceptualizing and modeling the interactions between human and environmental systems. Klaus has published over 200 journal articles and is recognized as highly cited researcher with multiple papers in the top 1% by citations. Klaus conducted studies for a number of national agencies in Europe, China, Japan, and the U.S., and international institutions such as the World Bank, the Interamerican Development Bank, World Wide Fund for Nature, and Greenpeace. Klaus was a lead author of the most recent assessment report (AR6) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Prof. Aki Kawasaki (University of Tokyo, Institute for Future Initiatives)

Poverty alleviation through flood disaster risk reduction in Southeast Asia

Abstract: In order to achieve Goal 1 of the SDGs "End poverty in all its forms everywhere," it is necessary to solve a common problem that many Southeast Asian countries face. In other words, "where and which forms of poverty exist" are not understood in the first place. Furthermore, because the mechanism of the vicious cycle of poverty is not yet understood, it is difficult to plan investment in disaster risk reduction (DRR) with long-term social development in mind. In order for Southeast Asian countries to develop sustainably while adapting to climate change within their limited budgets, comprehensive flood control measures and policies for social development, not just conventional public works projects focusing on infrastructure development, are required.

Therefore, our research group has been developing a model to formulate DRR investment policies that contribute to the reduction of water-related disasters and poverty through climate change adaptation, and to evaluate their effectiveness. In particular, we have focused on social aspects such as difference of the social stratification and have proposed policies that contribute to correcting disparities. Our research approach is to integrate and analyze data and models on the livelihoods, household economics, and disaster risk of the vulnerable people.

Key Words: Climate adaptation, DRR investment, flood control measures, disparity

Author: KAWASAKI Akiyuki is Professor at the Global Commons Center at Institute of Future Initiative as well as Department of Civil Engineering in the University of Tokyo. Kawasaki’s current research focuses on water-related disaster risk and poverty reduction in Asian from interdisciplinary applications of engineering and social science approaches. He is leading several interdisciplinary research projects in China, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand in collaboration with experts in various fields, such as economics, cultural anthropology, historiography, and informatics using GIS as a collaboration platform. Before joining the University of Tokyo in April 2010, he has conducted research at Yokohama National University, United Nations University, Asian Institute of Technology in Thailand, and Harvard University.

Prof. Stephan Weishaar (UG, Law)

Carbon Pricing Approaches in the EU and Asia.

Abstract: The urgency of addressing the Climate change crisis is outlined ever more forcefully by, inter alia, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change. The EU prides itself to be a global climate change leader and has announced its ambitious Green Deal that has as its objective in the area of Climate change to reduce GHG emissions by 55% by 2030, compared to 1990 levels and to reach net-zero by 2050. Many countries have followed suit and implemented legislation to also attain net-zero emissions (e.g. Japan, South Korea, China), pave pledged to do so (Thailand) or are doing to do so (Indonesia).

For many jurisdictions carbon pricing appears to be the instrument of choice to realize their objectives but price levels are far too low to incentivize climate transition effectively. Moreover more often than not the current climate efforts fall short of national pledges. This contribution takes stock of national climate change ambition, the perceived gaps and analyses the instrument mix that is relied upon from an interdisciplinary Law and Economics perspective. Similarities and differences between the jurisdictions are highlighted.

Author: Stefan Weishaar is Professor of Law and Economics at the University of Groningen. He is also a research affiliate at MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research in Boston (USA) and Adjunct Professor at the China University for Political Science and Law in Beijing (China). He is one of the Governors of the Globalisation Studies Groningen, and appointed as expert and lead drafter to the United Nations Subcommittee on Environmental Taxation. He studied economics (drs./M.Sc.) as well as law (LL.M.) at Maastricht University, and Political and Regional studies at the International Christian University in Tokyo (Japan Studies Diploma). Before coming to Groningen Stefan gained work experience at management consultancies in Switzerland and Argentina and at the Delegation of the European Union to Japan and worked for several years as Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Law of Maastricht University.

Stefan’s has a keen interest in the working of markets and regulatory instruments. His work covers several Law and Economics domains in the areas of Climate & Energy law, Competition law, Procurement law and Market integration. His research frequently employs a comparative law perspective. His broad research interests brought him to spend periods of time as visiting professor and researcher at MIT (USA), Vermont Law School (USA), Peking University (China), Central University of Finance and Economics (China), and China Europe School of Law (China). He has been invited to share his expertise in the area of Emissions Trading as well as in the area of Energy market integration and Environmental Taxation with several International and National institutions such as: the Energy Community Secretariat (Vienna); Korea Legislation Research Institute (Seoul); Ministry of Energy, Agriculture and Industry and Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (the Hague), the United Nations etc.

He publishes widely in international academic journals and participates in conferences worldwide. Stefan is inter alia the author of 3 monographs (one translated also into Chinese), and 5 edited volumes.

(Assoc.) Prof. Kim Irvine (TU)

Mae Kha River Re-imaged: Design, Engineering, and Community Engagement for Water Quality Remediation

Abstract: The Mae Kha River was an auspicious element that guided the founding of Chiang Mai in 1296 and subsequently served as a source of drinking water, flood, and military protection for the capital city of the Lanna kingdom. In recent decades, the environmental quality of this heritage resource has been degraded through poorly regulated urban development and wastewater discharges, to the point that a 2017 survey concluded wastewater composed nearly 100% of the river flow through central Chiang Mai. Dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in the same river section generally were <1 mg/L and BOD5 ranged between 61-82 mg/L. These findings were consistent with a 2006 study that showed DO levels averaged 1.39 mg/L at 3 sites in central Chiang Mai, while the geometric mean E. Coli levels ranged between 98,700-189,000 CFU/100 mL. More recent sampling by the Thai Pollution Control Department, as well as the earlier studies, show the Mae Kha upstream of the city to be of better quality. Given this background, the objective of this study was to develop Nature-based Solution strategies to improve environmental quality of the river and concurrently enhance community wellbeing and urban livability. To address this objective, we developed and assessed several design scenarios, including i) an offline treatment train of cleansing biotopes for the western branch of the Mae Kha and integrated floating wetlands on the river at major discharge points; ii) an offline hybrid vertical/horizontal flow constructed wetland integrated with a community park on the eastern branch of the Mae Kha; iii) floating wetlands for nutrient uptake; and iv) improved oxygenation through system-wide mechanical mixing, aeration polishing channels, and floating wetlands (Figures 1-5). Steinitz’ Framework for Theory and principles of Geodesign were employed to iteratively link water quality remediation assessment using dynamic, conceptual modelling (PCSWMM) and landscape architectural design in visioning the Nature-based Solution strategies.

Community familiarity and participation are essential elements of effective Nature-based Solution designs. This presentation reviews past development projects, barriers to successful implementation of these projects, and new initiatives for community engagement that ultimately will be used to refine the proposed Nature-based Solution strategies. Challenges that must be addressed include issues of informal housing and marginalized communities on the Mae Kha, competing interests of upstream agricultural water uses and urban water management, urban encroachment on historically-significant features, wastewater management, smart mobility, and effective stakeholder coordination across a diverse set of actors, including multiple levels of government and government agencies having different mandates.

Author: Kim Irvine is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Architecture and Planning, Thammasat University, Thailand. Between 2012 and 2020 he was an Associate Professor at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore and prior to this was a Professor in the Department of Geography/Planning, Buffalo State, State University of New York for 25 years. Dr. Irvine’s research focuses on applied hydrologic process and watershed pollutant modelling; sustainable urban waterscapes; smart city planning; and integration of hydrologic modelling with architectural design, particularly for Nature-based Solutions. The research has been conducted throughout Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Japan Canada, the U.S., and Australia. He was awarded the New York Water Environment Association Environmental Science Award in 2013 for contributions to water quality management, environmental engineering, and sewer infrastructure development. He held a Bualuang ASEAN Fellowship Award in 2020 to conduct research on water sensitive urban design at Thammasat University. Dr. Irvine has been a PI/Co-PI on more than $7.02 million USD in research funding and is author/co-author of more than 160 peer-reviewed publications.

Dr. Ari Susanti (UGM)

Sustainable Urbanization in Nusantara: challenges and alternatives for climate mitigation

Abstract: The Government of Indonesia has planned the capital city relocation from Jakarta in Java to Nusantara in East Kalimantan to deal with the over-population, over-burden, and the threat of climate-related disasters in Jakarta. Moreover, the relocation of the capital city intends to distribute the economic development outside the Java Islands to show Indonesia’s commitment to climate mitigation. However, the development of the new capital city or so-called Ibu Kota Nusantara (IKN) has received criticisms for its potential unintended impacts on Kalimantan's unique forest ecosystem and societies beyond the planned areas. The development of the city will increase the competition for the remaining lands, especially forest lands, and attracts migrants to the region. This will further influence the dynamics of land-based activities and socio-economics in the region. This article aims to analyze the challenges that will be faced by the region during its transformation from heavily dependent land-based economic activities into a sustainable city, especially beyond the planned areas using a system approach. The analysis will look at the dynamics of land-based activities, migration, and population dynamics in the region and how these dynamics could challenge the development of Nusantara, especially in dealing with the national commitment to climate mitigation. Borrowing the concept of rural-urban linkages, this research will identify potential strategies for climate mitigation such as increasing carbon stocks inside and outside forest areas through land rehabilitation to maintain their ecological functions and biodiversity to support sustainable urbanization in the IKN. This could be done by implementing an agroforestry system to reconcile socio-economic-ecological aspects of land rehabilitation.

Author: Ari Susanti is a lecturer and researcher in the Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. She is a forester by training and her research interest stems from my curiosity to understand the linkages between natural and human systems that include the relationships between human and their environments. She studied these relationships using a system approach, mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative), and tools which allow us to understand the broader context of forestry. As a forester, she focuses on the relationships between forest ecosystems, livelihoods, and governance systems to understand the process of achieving sustainable forest management in particular and sustainable development in general.

Dr. Zhu Feng (University of Singapore)

Development of a standardised framework and universal core indicators for flood resilience assessment

Abstract: Understanding the flood resilience of an area is an important task for decision-makers, practitioners, and community members. However, despite the proliferation of the term resilience in recent years, there has been no clear agreement on what resilience exactly constitutes and thus no consensus on the way in which it can be quantified. As such, this study aims to identify the most pivotal indicators to develop a universally applicable and standardised sustainable flood resilience framework. This study also used the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) indicators as a benchmark for an established form of measurement that is consistent and has been implemented globally, and for which data is being produced. A detailed review of 105 journal articles related to flood resilience assessment was conducted, to identify the most frequently used indicators across the frameworks in the literature. Following this, a hybrid method using Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) integrated with the Analytic Network Process (ANP) was then used to rank the top indicators in terms of their importance in evaluating resilience. The final outcome of this study allows users to make a quick and simple but universally standardised assessment of a study area’s flood resilience.

Author: Dr Zhu, Feng is an Assistant Professor in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. He received his Ph.D. from Purdue University in 2016, M.Phil from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in 2011, and B.E. from Sun Yat-Sen University in 2009. Dr Zhu’s research interest is in the area of intelligent urban mobility, sustainable transportation, and urban resiliency related to climate change. As of date, Dr Zhu has published over 30 journal papers in leading international SCI journals such as Transportation Research Part B, Transportation Research Part C, Transportation Research Part A, Computerā€Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, etc. Dr Zhu’s research receives funding awards (over S$2 million in total) from various agencies and institutions including the Ministry of Education in Singapore, the Land Transport Authority, the Urban Redevelopment Authority, and the Surbana Jurong-NTU Corporate Lab.

Theme III: Political Perspectives on Implementation: Leadership and Building Public Support for Climate Response and Sustainability

A. Political and Societal Dimensions

Prof. Patrick Verkooijen (CEO, Global Center on Adaptation, and UG-Spatial Sciences)



Key Words:


Prof. Bambang Hari Wibisono (UGM, Architecture and Planning)

Interlinkages between Climate and Urban Morphology

Abstract: Many aspects of urban character can be determined by its morphology, including its sustainability, microclimate, greenery, and environmental quality. Elements based on their morphological characteristics, such as buildings, roads, and the like, how these elements are arranged, change over time, in accordance with the higher demand for physical development due to urbanization. In fact, there is also interlinkage between urban morphology and the local climate. In general, the heat of the urban environment tends to increase with the more intense use of lands, particularly by buildings and road surfaces, the loss of trees and other vegetative ground cover, and the higher CO2 emission resulted by transportation and industries. In turn, the impact severity of climate change to the urban temperature will be depending upon the design of the city, more specifically its morphology.

This paper discusses how climate and urban morphology are interlinked through a variety of urban processes. Various cases from previous research and cases in Indonesia and several other countries are elaborated, which is aimed at identifying the specific problems and to propose some urban design and development concepts and policies.

Key Words: urban morphology, climate change, urban heat island

Author: Bambang Hari Wibisono is a professor in urban planning and design at the Department of Architecture and Planning, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. His Ph.D. thesis (2001) was entitled “Transformation of Jalan Malioboro, Yogyakarta: The Morphology and Dynamics of a Javanese Street,” submitted to The University of Melbourne, Australia. He also obtained two masters degrees (urban planning and transportation system engineering), both from University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA in 1990. His current field of interest is on urbanism and urban sustainability and livability, through morphological approach. Currently, he is appointed as the Head of Research Center for Regional Development Planning at Universitas Gajah Mada.

Dr. Naim Laeni (Faculty of Political Science, Thammasat University)

Institutional innovation for sustainable and resilient spatial transformation: A conceptual framework for cities in Southeast Asia

Abstract: Institutional design and local cooperation are vital parts contributing to successful resilience planning around the world. Drawing from these success stories worldwide, enabling conditions for resilience planning and project implementation is neither from reinventing new concepts nor introducing new technology. Instead, strong institutional cooperation, multi-stakeholder learning, and collaboration, local leaders, and initiatives, are present in those places. Urgency and complexity spatial planning challenges such as water-related risks, environmental and air pollution and urban inequality requires an in-depth understanding of spatial characteristic and governance process. To address these challenges at the local level, more insights regarding institutional design and governance arrangement are needed to promote sustainable and resilient area-based policies and interventions. This study embraces the call for area-based adaptation and policies and an integrated approach for addressing a wide range of spatial including water-related disasters, environmental quality, and social equality. In Southeast Asia, where the spatial and environmental risks are evidenced, the link between policy-making and spatial design and intervention to transform physical spaces is often not in place. Through reviewing an advanced review of insights and analysis urban resilience, spatial adaptation, and climate-proof design, this study aims to propose a conceptual framework to analyze institutional innovation, rules, and cooperation for stimulating sustainable and resilient spatial transformation. This study outlines the importance of bridging the theoretical approach between policy studies, institutional analysis and spatial governance and planning. Finally, this study suggests an integrated framework for directing multidisciplinary research not only to analyze existing resilience planning efforts and initiatives but to explore new possibilities for transformative cooperation, learning and inclusive collaboration.

Keywords: Southeast Asia, institutional innovation, cooperation, spatial transformation, resilience, climate resilience, sustainable urban governance

Author: Naim Laeni is a Lecturer at the Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Political Science, Thammasat University. His research interest and on-going projects are related to the field of water governance, institutional analysis and design, sustainable urban and environmental governance, flood risk management and policy and knowledge transfer. Naim holds a Bachelor’s in Political Science (First Class Honors) from Thammasat University. He then studied Spatial Sciences (Research Master) at the University of Groningen. In 2021, he obtained a PhD in Spatial Planning and Environment at the University of Groningen. Naim was involved in research on “Spatial designers as boundary spanners in spatial transformations towards a sustainable society” in collaboration Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management, Architecture Workroom Brussels and OECD Environment Directorate.

Dr. Linda Yanti Sulistiawati (UGM- Law/APCEL-NUS Law, National University of Singapore)

NDCs in ASEAN Countries: dreams or reality? Case studies: Indonesia and the Philippines.

Abstract: The Asia Pacific region has contributed approximately 83% to the global emission growth since 2010. Among the surge of emission in the Asia Pacific region, the ASEAN countries has been noted to have the highest growth rate – even globally. The region’s trends and drivers are dominated by energy and AFOLU sectors. At the same time having significant emission growth, ASEAN Countries are among the most vulnerable and prone to be affected by climate change impacts. From such description, it can be said that ASEAN countries have the same interest in combating climate change. As of 2017, all ASEAN countries had signed and ratified the Paris Agreement along with submitting their NDCs. Presently, most of the ASEAN members, have submitted their enhanced NDCs. Although enhanced NDCs displays progresses in national climate action, the pledges will never be effective unless they are actually implemented in the Country level.  This research tries to depict local regulating efforts to reach those NDC targets in the local level of ASEAN countries, through examining the local government efforts in dealing with climate change issue and fulfilling their NDC targets. This study also suggests alternative options to achieve NDC implementation in the local level of ASEAN countries, with case studies of Indonesia and the Philippines. 

Key words: NDCs, ASEAN countries, climate regulation, climate action, local level of ASEAN countries.

Author: Linda is a Senior Research Fellow at APCEL and also an Associate Professor of Law in Universitas Gadjah Mada. She is an internationally recognised scholar in Indonesian international environmental law and her research has established her as a leading expert who is frequently consulted by the Indonesian government and international organizations. Her research focuses on international environmental issues, such as climate change, REDD+, land issues and customary (adat) issues. Linda was a member of the delegation leading Indonesia’s negotiations of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. From 2018 to 2021, Linda is a lead author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Sixth Assessment Report. Linda was a Visiting Fellow at APCEL from 5 August 2019 to 3 September 2019 under the APCEL Visiting Fellow Programme.

Prof. Jaap de Wilde (UG)

The World at the Crossroads

Abstract: This article presents a critical update of my contribution to a 1994 international research project by the Pugwash Movement, published in: Ph.B. Smith, S.E. Okoye, J.H. de Wilde and P. Deshingkar, Eds., The World at the Crossroads: Towards a Sustainable, Equitable and Liveable World, London: Earthscan, 1994, pp. 159-176. The article on “The Power Politics of Sustainability, Equity and Liveability” concluded:

“Compensation programmes and schemes for social learning are but two small examples of the new power politics at a practical level. Others, mentioned in this volume, are plans for an Eco-Trust and a personal eco-budget, empowerment of local people, recognition of indigenous knowledge, adoption of ‘organic’ or ‘low-input’ farming methods, reduction in consumption of animal products, priority to subsistence farming, restoration of community rights over the local commons, de-institutionalization of the economic growth myth, the release of resources by disarmament, plans for district health systems, reform of official development assistance, the provision of information and education.

Together they may fit a pragmatic but normative, political programme that offers a realistic alternative for political extremism in response to crises; a comprehensive alternative for superficial reactions. Political science can contribute to the coherence of such a programme. By understanding that power is a culture and situation bound property, by understanding the importance of constructional interdependence, by recognizing the globalization of geopolitics, by counting on the growing role of IGOs and NGOs, by recognizing the discrepancy between global and individual dimensions, it may become possible to deal comprehensively with the population, food, energy and economic problems that will dominate politics for the coming decades. It may help to stop the disruption of ecosystems and the militarisation of societies.”

Almost 30 years later, the analysis still stands in most respects, while the recommendations have been largely ignored. This revisited reading will emphasize the need to focus on ‘urban geopolitics’ as one of the most promising governance perspectives to break the deadlocks.

Author: Since 2007, Jaap de Wilde is professor in International Relations & Security Studies at the Department of International Relations & International Organization (IRIO) and the Centre for International Relations Research (CIRR), University of Groningen. In 2022 he initiated together with colleagues from various universities the Dutch Peace & Conflict Studies Network. From 2010-2023, he was governor of Globalisation Studies Groningen (GSG), which he co-founded in 2010. From 2013-2017, he was chairman of the Dutch Foundation for Peace Research (SVW). From 2001 to 2007, professor in European Security Studies at the Department of Political Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, and from 1995-2007 senior research fellow in European Studies and IR Theory at the Centre for European Studies, University of Twente. From 1993-1995 he worked as senior research fellow at the Copenhagen Peace Research Institute (COPRI). Since 2022 he is Honorary Member of the Security History Network.

Dr. Christina Prell (UG)

Social Networks and the Environment

Abstract: Social networks research and analysis is increasingly applied to stakeholder engagement processes pertaining to environmental governance. In this talk, I describe three ways in which network analysis can be harnessed for supporting and researching stakeholder engagement. These include descriptive, i.e. as a means to help decision makers and stakeholders understand the social system surrounding an environmental governance issue; informative, i.e. how a descriptive understanding of networks can be used to inform interventions (e.g. participatory events); and evaluative, i.e. as a statistical approach for assessing whether interventions have met their intended aims/outcomes. In discussing these three applications of network analysis, I will illustrate their use via a collaborative research project I participated in for 5 years (2015-2019), the Deal Island Peninsula Project (, which focused on the vulnerabilities, resiliencies, and potential adaptive solutions to climate change experienced by the island.

Author: Christina Prell's research focuses on the intersection of social networks and the environment. On a more local or regional scale, her work considers the role of social networks in shaping and/or diffusing views, values, and/or cultural beliefs about the environment. On a global scale, she considers how the structure of global trade networks drive and/or co-evolve with a number of environmental inequalities, chief among these being between-country differences in pollution, as embodied in trade. She has published articles in such venues as Social Networks, Global Environmental Change, PloS ONE, Social Forces and Journal of Mathematical Sociology, and she has published two books on social networks and network analysis; the first is a sole-authored book entitled, Social Network Analysis: History, theory, and methodology (Sage), and the second is a co-edited book with Orjan Bodin, entitled Social Networks and Natural Resource Management (Cambridge University Press).

Dr. Karsten Schulz (UG)

Digital innovations for participatory climate governance in Southeast Asian cities

Abstract: Digital innovations have been explored by the academic community as a potential solution to a perceived lack of trust and inclusivity in urban climate governance. It has been argued that digital innovations can foster more inclusive community participation and nurture political trust in institutions that are tasked with implementing climate governance in cities. Two key examples of how digital innovations can enhance participatory urban governance are online civic engagement and ‘Smart City’ futures that are currently being advanced across Southeast Asia with the aim of achieving sustainable urban development under climate change. Drawing on expert interviews and a qualitative meta-analysis of urban digital innovations across the region, this chapter seeks to identify key design and governance principles that have the potential to enhance trust in digital innovations among local communities and decision makers alike. Citizens or communities who are generally distrustful towards existing governance processes are also likely to distrust institutionalized participatory mechanisms based on byzantine digital systems, especially in urban settings where the impacts of existing digital divides and climate-related vulnerabilities are most strongly felt. Therefore, it is argued that innovative governance arrangements are required to build trust between stakeholders, and to leverage the potential of digital innovations for urban climate action.

Author: Dr. Karsten Schulz is Assistant Professor of Governance and Innovation at the University of Groningen, where he also serves as the director of the Master’s programme in Climate Adaptation Governance. Before joining the University of Groningen, Dr. Schulz worked as a government consultant in the field of digitalization and as a researcher for a number of climate-related research projects, particularly in West Africa and Southeast Asia. His current work focuses on the role of digital technologies for climate governance and sustainability, and has appeared in academic journals such as Futures, Earth System Governance, and Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions. He also serves on the advisory board of the Future Earth-led research project ‘Re-imagining Climate Governance in the Digital Age.’

Hamed Seddighi and Mónica López López (UG)

Preparing children for climate related disasters in Southeast Asia: Comparing formal and informal children disaster education in Indonesia, Philippines, and Thailand

Abstract: Climate change has increased the intensity and number of natural hazards. The Southeast Asia region is one of the regions that experiences many high-intensity disasters, for instance, the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004 or Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines in 2013. Therefore, disaster preparedness is considered a very important step to risk reduction. Preparedness and mitigation are considered in the Sendai framework to reduce disaster risk. The Sendai Framework is considered the first major agreement of the United Nations for the Sustainable Development Goals, which emphasized the resilience of cities.

Children and youth are one of the main groups that should be prepared for disasters. Education plays a key role in disaster preparedness. Formal disaster preparedness training takes place in schools and informal training by national and international non-governmental organizations (INGO’s). In this study, the way of teaching disaster preparedness in three countries: Indonesia, Philippines, and Thailand are investigated. In addition, the role of NGO’s and INGO’s, especially the Red Cross societies in these three countries, is compared. Furthermore, the voluntary activities of young people in NGO’s and INGO’s such as the Red Cross is examined in order to reduce the risks of disasters. The results of this study can help to fill the gaps in the policies by examining the policies and measures.

Keywords: Climate change, Sustainable Development Goals, Volunteering, Children, Non-governmental organizations

Authors: Hamed Seddighi is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. He has been working the last ten years on managing humanitarian services during humanitarian emergencies in the Red Crescent Society of Iran as Deputy for Youth affairs and Deputy for Education & Research. His PhD thesis was about policy analysis and programs evaluation of disaster preparedness programs in Iran. He published several articles on climate-related disasters, pandemics, volunteering, and humanitarian aid. In his studies, he focuses mostly on children and vulnerable groups in humanitarian contexts. He is an Associate Editor of the Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness journal (Cambridge Journals).

Mónica López López : Mónica López López is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences of the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. She is particularly interested in understanding the potential causal factors of inequalities in child welfare. She applies an intersectional lens and participatory research methods to understand the impact of multiple forms of oppression in the lives of care-experienced children and youth. Her ultimate goal is to develop a scholarship that helps professionals to prioritise equity and social justice in child and family welfare services. Mónica is a board member of the European Scientific Association for Residential and Family Care for Children and Adolescents (EuSARF).

Dr. Ronan McDermott (UG)

Digital governance and climate adaptation: a case study of the use of the e-musrenbang participation tool within flood- and sea level rise-prone districts of Surabaya, Indonesia.

Abstract: Digital governance is increasingly re-shaping governance arrangements with considerable implications for equity and justice. Through the use of information and communication technologies within governance, digital governance holds out the promise of increased inclusion, deliberation and transparency within the policy-making process. However, it has also been recognized that digital governance arrangements can reflect and reinforce challenges encountered in traditional forms of governance by re-configuring patterns of inclusion and exclusion, undermining deliberation and reducing opportunities for mobilisation. These considerations are of direct relevance to climate adaptation governance. However, the nexus between digital governance and equitable climate adaptation demands greater theorisation together with empirical work that explores its complexity and, given the relative novelty of many initiatives, the relationship between digital governance and climate risk over time. Southeast Asia is a pertinent region within which to explore this topic, given the high level of citizen engagement in the cybersphere in the region as well as high levels of exposure and vulnerability to climatic hazards. Against this backdrop the paper develops a conceptual framework for understanding the digital governance-climate adaptation nexus. Empirically, it then outlines the implications for equitable adaptation governance of e-musrenbang, an e-governance tool utilised in Indonesia. Drawing on a case study of districts of Surabaya exposed to coastal flooding and sea-level rise, the paper provides a grounded understanding of the implications of digital governance for equitable adaptation. It also allows for the exploration of the interaction between risk and governance over time, given that the e-musrenbang tool was first established there in 2009. The implications for similar e-governance arrangements in climate-exposed regions in South-East Asia is considered.

Author: Ronan McDermott is Assistant Professor in Climate Adaptation Governance, Department of Global and Local Governance, Campus Fryslân, University of Groningen, Netherlands

His core research interests concern how disaster risk governance interacts with broader social, economic and political contexts. Previous research reflecting this interest includes investigation of the role of tenure security in determining the frequency and intensity of flooding and fire, the ethics of field research in vulnerable contexts, and how legal and policy frameworks for disaster management come to reflect dominant perspectives of disaster risk. He has undertaken field research in collaboration with academic, NGO and Red Cross/Red Crescent actors in Colombia, Indonesia, Ireland and Kenya. He holds a PhD from University College Dublin’s Centre for Humanitarian Action. Before joining University of Groningen in 2021, he was a Research Fellow at the University of Nottingham.

B. Political and Policymaking Perspectives

Remco van Wijngaarden (Ambassador of the Netherlands to Thailand)

Dr. Tavida Kamolvej (Deputy Governor, Bangkok Metropolitan Area)

National Thai official

Dr. Ruandha Agung Sugardiman M.Sc. (Director General, Climate Change, Ministry of Forestry and the Environment)

Irvan Pulungan, Jakarta Governor Special Envoy, Climate Change.

Political Dynamics of Climate Change Policy Making: A Report from Indonesia

Abstract: All over the world, the process of formulating climate change policies is supported by guidelines formulated as part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These UNFCCC-aligned tools, guidelines, and reference documents have provided a grid - a lattice on how to develop policies that are mitigating and adaptive to climate change and, of course, with the promise that if followed, they will open up access to significant sources of funding and technical support for developing countries. Nevertheless, often times these reference documents produce policy documents that are very strong on paper but very difficult to implement; worse, sometimes the actions chosen are far from mitigation and adaptation; some experiences even show "polite coercion" when using the reference document may lead to polemics, due to the mismatch of references with the local context. We must not be confident that all of these problems arise because of tools that are not contextual. A country like Indonesia is unique because ‘power’ plays a vital role in the political dynamics of climate change policy formulation, so it often produces good policies which may be challenging to execute. In this paper, the actor-network theory concept is used to examine the political dynamics that influence the policy formulation process for Low Carbon Development Planning in Indonesia. Case studies in Indonesia show how international and national agents greatly influence the formation and implementation of climate change policies on sub-national actors. This analysis will add to the theoretical and empirical analysis of the question of power and knowledge in climate-related policymaking.

Key-words: Climate Change Policy, Political dynamics, Actor Networks, International Relations, Low Carbon Development Planning

Author: Irvan Pulungan, S.H., M.Sc. is Jakarta Governor Special Envoy (Climate Change) 2017 – 2022. Since 2006, Irvan has contributed as researcher at various prominent international research institutions such as the: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Indonesian Center for Environmental Law (ICEL), United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Sustainable Ecosystem Advanced program. His research interest is: Knowledge and Power in Policy Making Process. Irvan as part of CIFOR global comparative research team has published several researches regarding REDD+ and Jurisdictional Sustainability

Prior to serving as Governor Envoy, Irvan was a member of the Drafting Team of Indonesian Environmental Protection and Management Act, Number 32, Year 2009.

R Soerakoesoemah, Head, Sub-Regional Office for South East Asia

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)

Author: Mr. Ruhimat Soerakoesoemah is the Head of the Subregional Office for South-East Asia at UN ESCAP. He initiates work on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development among the South-east Asian member States, in partnership with governments, international institutions, civil society, and private sector entities. He leads the cooperation of the UN with ASEAN in the economic and social-cultural areas under the framework of the ASEAN-UN Plan of Action. Prior to UN ESCAP, he managed economic development programmes and delivered technical assistance in the ASEAN and the Pacific regions.

Before joining UN ESCAP, he managed economic development programmes and delivered technical assistance in the ASEAN and the Pacific regions. He has extensive experience in policy analysis, development cooperation, and regional integration in Asia and the Pacific. Ruhimat was with the ASEAN Secretariat for 17 years responsible for developing cooperation in the areas of food, agriculture, and forestry; narrowing the development gap; standards and conformance; energy and minerals; external economic relations; and finance and banking.

Miguel Rafael V. Musngi, MPA, JD

Assistant Director and Head of Poverty Eradication and Gender Division ASEAN Secretariat

As Head of the Poverty Eradication and Gender Division (PEGD), Human Development Directorate, ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community Department, of the ASEAN Secretariat, Mr. Musngi and the team supports ASEAN’s cooperation on gender equality and women’s empowerment, the rights of women and children, rural development and poverty eradication, social welfare and development including issues related to social protection, and the welfare of children, older persons and persons with disabilities. Mr. Musngi and the team likewise provide coordination support on SDG-related initiatives.

Mr. Musngi previously served as a Senior Officer of PEGD, and in the Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance Division in the same Department.

Prior to joining the ASEAN Secretariat, Mr. Musngi was part of the legal team supporting indigenous peoples in the Bangsamoro Transition Commission, particularly in developing the law for the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (BARMM). Mr. Musngi has also worked in the National Anti-Poverty Commission (NAPC), focusing on policy reforms for small coconut farmers and the coconut industry in the Philippines.

Mr. Musngi previously worked as a Programme Manager in the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung – Manila, and a Regional Campaign Officer for Oxfam in Southeast Asia. For more than ten years, Mr. Musngi has worked with small farmers, rural women, indigenous peoples, and fisherfolk in the Philippines on reforming agricultural policies and strengthening rural democratic institutions.

Mr. Musngi has a Bachelors Degree in Public Administration, and a Masters Degree in Public Administration and Public Policy, both of which he earned from the National College of Public Administration and Governance (NCPAG) in the University of the Philippines, Diliman. He earned a Juris Doctor from the College of Law from the same university.

Last modified:14 March 2023 1.08 p.m.