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Wubbo Ockels School for Energy and Climate Calendar Transformative Futures

Graduate Conference: UG-TU-UGM

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Choerudin S. (UG, PhD candidate)

Port-cities relationship and sustainable development in Indonesia: The case of Patimban port and Rebana metropolitan area

Abstract. This paper discusses the challenges from an institutional perspectives on how to achieve sustainable port cities in Indonesia by exploring two interrelated cases, the development of Patimban port and the surrounding Rebana metropolitan area. The discussion gives a new perspective on how developing countries in Southeast Asia deal with institutional conflict in the port-cities relationship. The development of port-cities interfaces in Indonesia is strongly influenced by economic growth policies based on developing industrial areas that depend on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). The construction of Patimban port and the Rebana metropolitan area is related to the increased influence of markets, capitalism and economic growth on the one hand and environmental concern on the other. These two areas are certainly a conflict that requires an institutional arrangement where the challenge is a change in relations at multi-level government scales. The central government currently plays more of a role in strategic development, requiring a more integrated, flexible, and participatory governance capacity. Coordination between sectors and between governments is needed on a broader regional scale. Instead of thinking in traditional administrative boundaries, port-cities interface planning should be more directed at regional scales based on socio-economic and spatial-environmental impacts. Thus, more vital local-regional institutions are needed to increase local capacity in managing impacts from development towards a sustainable society in the future.

Keywords: Port-cities interface; Sustainable development; Climate change; Institutional arrangement.

Author: Choerudin S is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Spatial Planning and Environment of the Faculty of Spatial Sciences at the University of Groningen. Currently, he is working on his Ph.D. dissertation on the port-cities relationship toward sustainable urban and regional from an institutional perspective under the supervision of Prof. Ronald Holzhacker, Prof. Johan Woltjer, and Dr. Tim Busscher. Formerly, he served as head of the subdivision of road transport in the Ministry of Transportation, Indonesia. He holds an LPDP scholarship from the government of Indonesia. He has a bachelor's degree in Civil engineering from Maranatha Christian University, Bandung, and a double master's degree in Transport Planning from the Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) and Environmental and infrastructure planning from the University of Groningen, Netherlands.

Asri Samsu (UG-ITB double degree PhD) Institutional Planning for Integrated Water

Management Approach (IUWM): Indonesia
Integrated Urban Water Management in Makassar, Indonesia.

Abstract: The climate change issue has aggravated the challenge of urban water sources' availability and quality while the population projection is increasing. Studies offer the integration of urban water cycles: surface water, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater, as an integrated water management approach for facing the challenge and achieving water sustainability. However, studies on understanding urban water integration in Indonesia are still limited. This study aims to explore water policies toward the integrated approach in Indonesia, with Makassar as a case study, focusing on answering three specific questions: (1) To what extent do urban water cycles in the Makassar metropolitan cities experience integration approaches? (2) Is climate change being considered by Makassar officials as part of the integrated water approach? (3) How should planning respond to the emergence of the integrated approach?

To answer these questions, this research uses qualitative content analysis to focus on water policies and development planning in Makassar. A conventional content analysis approach was used to determine the integration approach, internal and external, which focuses on the policy and planning at different levels of government involved. In addition, the integrations are compared to the integrated approach principle, climate change issues, and development planning before determining the city approach position and suggesting sustainable integration of urban water management.

The analysis shows that water imbalance and rivalry are significant issues in Makassar's urban water management. There has been an internal and external integration effort in Makassar to face those issues. From an internal perspective, documents show an integrated effort in the regional spatial approach and small island communities. However, there is still a significant gap in integrating urban and agricultural water policies. Moreover, climate change issues are limited as a consideration in water policy integration. Thus, integrated urban water management institutionalization is needed to align internal and external coherence. (299)

Key Words: climate change, water and sanitation SDG, integrated urban water management, institutional framework

Author: Asri Samsu is a Ph.D. double degree student between the University of Groningen, the Netherlands, and ITB, Indonesia. He was graduated from a double degree master's program in urban and regional planning between Curtin University, Australia, and Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. Before joining the doctoral program at the University of Groningen and ITB, Asri Samsu was the head of the Infrastructure and Spatial Sub-division in Regional Development Planning, Research, and Development Board of Soppeng Regency. Moreover, as a civil servant, he is a planner for an infrastructure development plan in Soppeng Regency, including water and sanitation infrastructure as well as irrigation for agriculture infrastructure. His primary interest is in water provision planning, development, and sustainability, focusing on an integrated approach and institutional planning.

Martin Drenth (UG, PhD. candidate)

Urban Climate Adaptation in Indonesian Metropolitan Areas: Governance Challenges in Developing Adaptation Strategies in Medan

Abstract: Cities in Southeast Asia are facing a range of climate challenges related to the water sector, such as flooding due to increased extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and difficulties accessing water during prolonged dry seasons. Urban water systems must continuously adapt and transition between these extremes. Whereas traditional approaches have prioritized engineering measures, climate change also has societal impacts on the water sector that affect equity and the distribution of water. Recently, the Water Sensitive City (WSC) has been proposed as a promising concept to improve urban climate resilience. With its institutional perspective, the WSC concept could also aid the achievement of SDGs 6, 10, and 11. Despite its perceived benefits, the enabling conditions for the concept in Indonesian metropolitan areas are still unclear. This study therefore explores the governance challenges in developing urban climate adaptation strategies by taking Medan, Indonesia’s third-largest city, as a case study. Medan’s northern part borders the Strait of Malacca, thus facing sea level rise. The city currently faces water supply challenges, flooding and development pressures. Located on Sumatra, one of Indonesia’s Outer Islands (those ‘outside’ Java Island), Medan is relatively less-researched than cities on Java, such as Jakarta. The chapter will first describe the impact of climate change in Indonesia and show how the city level is embedded within Indonesia’s national policy framework for climate change. It will also explain the local context and effects of climate change on Medan and assess the city’s local urban adaptation strategies and challenges. The analysis seeks to uncover which aspects of the WSC concept are particularly relevant in the Indonesian climate adaptation context. The chapter will conclude by proposing enabling conditions for water sensitive city strategies that can overcome the governance challenges that Indonesian Metropolitan Areas face in dealing with the effects of climate change.

Keywords: Water Sensitive City; Governance Challenges; Urban Climate Adaptation; Equitable Water Supply; Global South

Author: Martin Drenth is a PhD Candidate at the Department of Spatial Planning & Environment, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen. He spent most of his professional life in Indonesia. As a researcher, he was affiliated with the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB). Martin has varying research interests, including inclusive planning, climate change adaptation, and resilience in an urban context. In his PhD research, Martin studies the institutional design and governance that can help Indonesian cities transform into water sensitive cities that are more inclusive and climate-resilient. His case studies are Bandung and Medan. These metropolitan areas face a wide range of water-related problems. Recently, Martin studied the hydrosocial cycle of Bandung’s water system to analyze the influence of socio-political relations in achieving the SDGs.

Intan Novianingsih (UG-ITB double degree PhD)

EQUALITY IN REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:
An Exploration of the Potential of Geographical Bundling in Transport Infrastructure Public-Private Partnerships in Indonesia

Intan Novianingsih, Stefan Verweij, Jos Arts, Johan Woltjer, Delik Hudalah, Pradono Pradono

Abstract: Equality in regional economic development is an important challenge in many countries, including developing countries such as Indonesia. Inequality has adverse effects such discrepancies in poverty levels, a lacking attention to environmental and climate change issues, and social tensions. The provision of transport infrastructure is traditionally considered as a major means to achieve economic development, thereby alleviating regional economic inequalities. As a consequence of lacking funding capacity, many governments look to Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) for the delivery of transport infrastructure. This is especially the case in developing countries. Although there is a vast literature about the potential positive (economic) effects of PPPs and the factors explaining these effects, little is known about how PPPs can contribute to increasing economic equality specifically.

In this paper, we look into “geographical bundling” in PPPs. Geographical bundling concerns the merging of several similar transport infrastructure projects, that are in different economic regions, into a single contract and operational scheme. Regions are defined by administrative boundaries and different projects are distinguished by location, function, and scale. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential benefits of geographical bundling by PPPs for achieving equality in regional economic development. Based on a review of literature, we will discuss the meaning and manifestation of geographical bundling, how it is manifested in PPPs specifically, and what the potential benefits are for equality in regional economic development. Next, the framework is applied to the case of Indonesia, a country characterized by major regional economic inequalities. The Indonesian government bundled some sections of toll road development in Java Island (advantaged region) with toll sections in Sumatera Island (disadvantaged region). Secondary data (reports, websites, case studies) and primary data (explorative interviews) are collected and qualitatively analyzed. The paper provides first insights into how geographical bundling in transport infrastructure PPPs could enhance the equality in regional economic development between regions.

Keywords: Equality; Regional Economic Development; Transport Infrastructure; Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs); Geographical Bundling

First Author: Intan Novianingsih, MT,M.Sc is a PhD researcher in Infrastructure Planning in the Double Degree Program between University of Groningen, The Netherlands and Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia. She obtained Double Degree Master Program also in University of Groningen and Institut Teknologi Bandung. Previously, she gained her undergraduate degree in the Land Transportation Vocational Program at the Graduate School of Land Transportation, Indonesia. Besides her experiences in academics, she works in the Ministry of Transport of Indonesia, with her main responsibilities in the railways sector. In according to her background in governmental arena, she tries to bridge the academic context of transport infrastructure planning into the policy making process and practice, especially regarding Public Private Partnerships for transport infrastructure projects, related to spatial aspects and regional economic development.

Fika Novitasari (UG-ITB)

Equity in domestic water provision in Indonesia: the perception of the government and the potential role of community-based water management

Abstract: Equitable and universal access to water is a global commitment to provide domestic water for everyone. This target has become the responsibility to be achieved for every country, including Indonesia. As a developing country, Indonesia is facing a disparity in domestic water provision. Nevertheless, over time, the Indonesian government has developed and supported various alternative strategies to safeguard domestic water supply for the population, including different public-private partnership constructions and community-based water supply. Yet, many communities and areas still lack access to good quality safe water. Although the United Nations has set targets for equitable access to water, the definition of equity principles for domestic water supply goes beyond access and quality, emphasizing the relevance of representation and participation of marginalized communities in co-determining how to achieve equity targets. Therefore, by conducting a policy document analysis, alongside interviews with key informants, this paper seeks to explore the Indonesian government's perception of equitable (domestic) water access in Indonesia and their efforts to safeguard equity in domestic water management. In particular, the paper zooms in on community-based domestic water provision and its potential role in safeguarding equity. In line with UN's target of equitable access to water, the Indonesian government interprets this target by increasing access to clean water through piped water. This paper shows that the Indonesian government has tried to represent the poor and areas that do not have access to water by promoting a community-based domestic water supply program. This paper provides input for policy makers in Indonesia in considering equity concepts in domestic water management.

Keywords: equity; domestic water provision; government perception; community-based

Author: Fika Novitasari is a PhD researcher who obtained a double degree from The University of Groningen, The Netherlands and Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia. Formerly, she studied in the Master Program of Urban and Regional Planning with a specialization in infrastructure planning at ITB. After completing her master's program, she worked as a lecturer at the School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development, ITB - Cirebon Campus. She has experiences in research activities and community development in the last five years focused on urban infrastructure development, water governance, village infrastructures to support SDGs, and the integration of clean water infrastructure planning with spatial planning.

Binyuan Liu (UG)

Emission growth and drivers

Abstract: Mainland Southeast Asian (MSEA) countries (Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, and Vietnam) are likely to become one of the next hotspots for emission reduction since CO2 emissions in this area will have a two-thirds increase by 2040 due to rapid economic growth and associated energy consumption. As one of the most vulnerable areas to climate change, MSEA countries need to develop low-carbon roadmaps based on accurate emission data. This study provides emission inventories for MSEA countries for 2010-2019, based on the IPCC territorial emission accounting approach, including emissions from five types of fuels (i.e., coal, crude oil, oil products, natural gas, and biofuels & waste) used in 47 economic sectors. The results show that the emissions in MSEA countries are on the rise, with average annual growth rates ranging from 2.5% in Thailand to 19.3% in Laos. Biomass is one of the most important sources of carbon emissions, contributing between 11.8% and 76.7% of total carbon emissions, but its share has been declining in most countries, whereas the share of emissions from coal has risen sharply in Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia. We further examine the drivers behind the changes in emissions using index decomposition analysis. Economic growth was the strongest driver of growth in emissions, while population growth has only had a small effect on emission growth. Energy intensity varies widely across nations, but only significantly reduced CO2 emission growth in Thailand. The secondary sector considerably contributed to an increase in CO2 emissions in Laos and Vietnam, while the tertiary sector only moderately contributed to emissions in Thailand. Our study provides a better understanding of the composition and underlying factors of emission growth in MSEA countries, this could shape their low-carbon development pathway. Our results could also inform other emerging economies, which may become emission hotspots in the next decades, to develop low-carbon roadmaps, thereby contributing to the achievement of global climate change targets.

Author: Binyuan Liu is a first-year Ph.D. student in Integrated Research on Energy, Environment and Society (IREES) at the University of Groningen. He has an MSc in Energy and Environmental Science from the University of Groningen and a BSc in Petroleum Engineering from Northeast Petroleum University in China. Before joining the University of Groningen, he worked as an operator for China National Offshore Oil Corporation.
Binyuan’s research mainly focuses on greenhouse gas emissions accounts from different perspectives and scales, with a special interest in developing countries. He is also interested in emission mitigation policies from the fossil fuel supply side and the social impact of the policies. He has worked on several research projects. The research output includes co-authoring 3 peer-reviewed journal articles in high-impact journals, such as the Journal of Environmental Management, and 1 conference paper.

Lihoun Teang (TU, Faculty of Architecture and Planning, Integrated Science of Built Environment)

Nature-based Solution (NBS) for Urban Flood Challenge in Phnom Penh: Current issues, barriers, and opportunities for NBS implementation

Abstract: Phnom Penh is the center of Cambodia’s national economy and the largest urbanized area in the country. Increasing urbanization with rapid development trends have resulted in multiple environmental and social consequences, particularly related to flooding. The study performed a narrative review to identify factors associated with the declining capacity of the city to cope with floods and its impacts on community and city resilience, then highlighted barriers and opportunities for adopting Nature-based Solution (NbS) designs in Phnom Penh. From the review, NbS historically and naturally has been part of the city for stormwater management and treatment of wastewater although the concept of NbS design interventions is new to the city. Wetlands and detention areas have provided multiple ecosystem services, including flood protection, wastewater treatment, habitat diversity, carbon sequestration, and culturally significant services, as well as being the home and the source of income for diverse communities of urban poor. However, the city has experienced rapid economic development over the past 20 years and some of these natural areas have been replaced with grand development projects without critical examination of the impacts, leaving the city more vulnerable to flooding. The review also found that the city is shifting toward hard-engineer-oriented wastewater management, which includes a sewerage system, drainage canals, pumping stations, and conceptual plans for conventional treatment plants. Yet the area covered by the conventional treatment remains limited, resulting in frequent flooding scattered around the city center and low-elevation areas. Furthermore, the natural wetland areas of peri-urban Phnom Penh are disappearing at an accelerated rate and this trend will exacerbate flooding issues. The plight of the urban poor and communities in the highly affected areas require more focus and a better response from related agencies to help with local preparedness. We argue that disaster risk related to development-induced floods requires significant policy changes as it goes beyond the scope of community-based adaptation alone. The policy context aiming at fast economic growth and urbanization pattern for the past 20 years makes city green infrastructure the low priority. Per capita green space area has been estimated as 1.1m2, with less than 1% of Phnom Penh’s total land area is considered public green space, and new construction plans continue to unfold. Implementing NbS in Phnom Penh will be impossible without more active government policy which could lead to reforming spatial planning for the city to include green infrastructure policy (such as urban farming, green roof, green wall, and urban wetland) in the built environment.

Xu Shiying (TU)

Assessing community flood resilience – from theory to practice

Abstract: Floods are common natural disasters in the world, with climate change and growing urbanisation continuing to increase the flood risk in urban areas. This study begins with exploring how flood management has changed over time and introduced the concept of resilience as a recent and increasingly popular approach. However, due to its interdisciplinary nature, there has not been a standardised approach to measure and operationalise resilience. In the field of social sciences, resilience assessments tend to be more general, often not considering the type, magnitude and impacts of the potential disaster, resulting in mostly ex-ante measures (before the event). These factors are better defined in engineering approaches, where resilience is often understood as the (lack of) decline in performance of a system during the flood disturbance and the time taken to recover. In this sense, a single and static equilibrium is implied and hence assessments in this field are post-ante and measured against pre-event conditions. However, unlike infrastructural systems, a community or society is constantly changing and evolving, and its resilience cannot simply be defined in terms of its original level of functionality due to its complexity. This study thus proposes a new way of understanding the different notions of resilience. Rather than opposing, the concepts are viewed as extensions of each other, and interconnections between various scales, phases and dimensions of resilience are also emphasised, with a particular focus on interactions between the institutional and individual level. A multidisciplinary approach is adopted and diverse frameworks in the literature are integrated to propose a method that accounts for both ex- and post-ante assessment, aiming to allow urban communities to objectively track their changes in flood resilience over time. This study therefore contributes to the research in this field by bridging the gap between community flood resilience in theory and application.

Author: Xu Shiying is a PhD student in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. Her research interests lie in the interrelationships between human societies and natural environments. She is currently working on flood management, specifically the resilience of urban communities. Her thesis focuses on the application of diverse resilience concepts to practice by developing a flood resilience assessment tool through an interdisciplinary approach. She is also part of a research team in the Surbana Jurong-NTU Corporate Laboratory developing a visualization platform for flood and transport resiliency. Before starting her PhD, she received her Bachelor of Social Sciences (Geography) in National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2019 and worked as a research assistant studying waterscapes in Asia.

‚ÄčAlia Fajarwati (Doctoral Program in Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada)

Indonesian Women and Climate Change

Abstract: Damage to natural resources and the environment due to climate change is a global problem. Various disasters occur everywhere due to climate changes such as floods, landslides, and drought which affect human life. The impacts of climate change will be experienced differently between men and women due to imbalances in gender relations. Using a literature study, this research aims to explore the discourse from the women's experience through two research objectives, namely to explore the impact of climate change on women in Indonesia and to identify the role of Indonesian women in climate change. The results showed that impacts of climate change on women rooted from the interrelation between environmental and cultural factors which cannot be separated from the three roles of women that distinguish them from men. However, evidence from various regions in Indonesia showed that Indonesian women have played a role in mitigating climate change, but their participation at the national level in the CCVA (Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment) process and in government planning is still low. Therefore, women have the potential and important strategic roles as agents of change in anticipating climate change.

Keywords: Women, Climate change, Impact, Women’s role

Widyasari Her Nugrahandika, Bakti Setiawan, and Retno Widodo Dwi Pramono (Doctoral of Urban Planning, Universitas Gadjah Mada)

Dualism in Land Management and Its Impacts to Sustainable Housing Provision: The Case of Yogyakarta

Abstract: Land is an essential component in the production of housing. The increasing price due to the capitalization of land in the urban area creates problems in sustainable housing provision ,particularly for the poor. As a province with a special status due to its historical role and the existence of the Sultanate and its institutions which are still functioning today, there is a dualism in land management in the Special Region of Yogyakarta. This dualism occurs where the management of land in this area involves both the local government and the Sultanate. The slogan 'throne for the people also underlies that the Kraton and the king must be oriented to ensure access to land for citizens in need, especially for housing as one of the basic human needs. Despite this normative assumption, there are indications that access to affordable land in this area is not always guaranteed. Even more so when looking at the fact that Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta as a city of culture, education, and tourism attracts a lot of attention from outsiders to live. This causes land prices in urban Yogyakarta to rise sharply and make it increasingly difficult for people to access land for a living. With a dualism theory perspective, this paper argues that dualism in land management in DIY has not fully guaranteed fair access to land for all. With a qualitative descriptive approach, this paper shows the facts that the dualism system in land management in this area is still not optimal. This causes the sustainable housing provision in this special region would not be guarantee.

Keyword: sustainable housing provision, land, dualism.

Elvis Salouw, Bakti Setiawan, (Doctoral Program in Architecture, Universitas Gadjah Mada)

The Challenges of Cross-Border Tourism for Sustainable Development: The Case of the Indonesia-Timor Leste Border Area

Abstract: Border areas previously considered peripheral and tend to be treated from the security principles only. Recetly however, such orientation has shifted more toward prosperity and sustainable principles. Cross-border tourism, a a study involving borders and tourism, is ideal for supporting the welfare of border communities, providing additional income, reducing unemployment, and offering new jobs. In other words, cross-border tourism has so many potentials for achieving sustainable development. As the largest archipelagic country of the world, Indonesia has many borders and most are potential to be developed as cross-border tourism. Nonetheless, until now, research on cross-border tourism in Indonesia is still minimal. This research is conducted in the Indonesia-Timor Leste border area using a qualitative descriptive approach. This research documents the development of cross-border tourism in that area and its impacts to on sustainable development in the Indonesia-Timor Leste border area. This research finds some potentials as well constraints in developing cross-border area for sustainable development.

Keywords: Cross-border, Tourism, Sustainable Development, Indonesia, Timor Leste

Irsyad Adhi Waskita Hutama, Hitoshi Nakamura, Bakti Setiawan (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia)

Towards sustainable kampong settlement: a participatory method for assessing enabling and disabling factors and exploring neighbourhood-based disaster resilience in Indonesian riverbank kampongs

Abstract: Climate-related disasters, socio-economic risk, and the recent COVID-19 pandemic have overwhelmed and exacerbated dwellers' quality of life in informal settlements. These multiple stressors have challenged how dwellers cope and adapt to the predicament in unprecedented ways. Despite the shock and stresses in a disaster-prone environment, riverbank kampong has the potential to self-organize its resource and community to sustain life. This paper proposes a community-based participatory approach for self-assessing kampong risk and resilience capacity and identifying enabling/disabling resilience factors from multiple stressors in urban riverbank kampong. A Series of focus group discussions followed by a semi-structured interview with 36 participants was carried out in two urban riverbank kampongs in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Our preliminary findings suggest that despite the differences in the community's initiatives to achieve resilience, the disabling (negative) factors were more significant than the enabling (positive) factors to achieve resilience progress. In the factor’s categorization, we found that physical setting (street dimension and layout), location, poor disaster mitigation infrastructure, funding, and maintenance are among the disabling factors, while the social norm such (e.g., helping each other "gotong royong", tolerant) and spirit to survive and progress better are positive factors that enable neighbourhood resilience. The application of the approach effectively understood the current state of resilience capacity. It raised the awareness of local actors/communities to set priorities and act based on its current resilience state.

Key Words: Keywords: Neighbourhood (kampong) resilience, multiple stressors, climate-related disaster, participatory approach, urban riverbank kampong.

Rendy Bayu Aditya (Doctoral Program at UCL, London and Staff at the Urban and Regional Planning, Gadjah Mada University)

After Covid-19: Temporary Urbanism and Urban Circularity in The Built Environment

Abstract: The pandemic had forced people to use urban space and resource uniquely. Temporary urbanism appeared around the world, adjusting uses of spaces (i.e. street, park, etc) to be adaptable with anti-outbreak protocols (i.e. physical distance, outdoor, etc). Temporary urbanism (also known as tactical urbanism, Do-It-Yourself urbanism) strategies harnessed existing urban resources, repurposing spaces and buildings in cities. People reclaimed streets to be public space. Pop-up and pocket parks gained more visitors during limited mobility order. Public buildings were repurposed to shelter people. These innovations intersect with the concept of urban circularity in the built environment sector: allowing existing assets in cities to be repurposed to deliver better services to public. By using temporary urbanism actions during the covid-19 pandemic as illustrations, this paper will discuss how this concept can contribute to support urban circularity, creating cities and regions to be resource efficient and more resilient in the future.

Keywords: Temporary, Urbanism, Urban Circularity

Last modified:13 March 2023 09.21 a.m.