prof. mr. dr. B.C.A. Toebes
Ministerie van Sociale Zaken, Lid Commissie Verplichte Vaccinatie Kinderopvang, december 2018-mei 2019.
NWO, reisbeurs voor Prof Scott Burris (Temple University, US): 'strengthening the justice pillar of the Aletta Jacobs School of Public Health', bezoek aan Groningen van mei t/m juli 2019.
Research Handbook on Global Health Law - Edward Elgar Publishing - als co-editor samen met Prof Gian Luca Burci (Graduate Institute, Geneva), 2018, zie hier.
VN-Speciaal Rapporteur inzake Recht op Gezondheid (SRRH): advisering SRRH over corruptie in de gezondheidszorg, en het recht op gezondheid (april-juli 2017).Rapport hier beschikbaar.
EUR 300.000 van KWF voor project getiteld 'The rights of children to a tobacco-free environment: a proposal for a collaborative project between Global Health Law Groningen and the Dutch Cancer Society (KWF)'.
Dit project, dat voorziet in de aanstelling van een posdtoc onderzoek voor een periode van drie jaar (Dr Marie Elske Gispen), richt zich op het vergroten van expertise of het terrein van tabaksregulering in Europa en meer specifiek in Nederland, en legt daarbij de nadruk op de rechten en belangen van kinderen.
Het project bevat twee onderdelen1) onderzoek naar (strengere) regulering van tabak in Europa, met specifiek de aandacht op kinderen; en 2) het opzetten an een Europees juridisch netwerk (think tank) om dit onderzoek te ondersteunen en te versterken, in samenwerking met KWF en andere Europese kankerstichtingen. Voor meer informatie zie hier.
Lopende promotietrajecten in Groningen
Lucía Berro Pizzarossa - 2014-2018 - the interaction between gender stereotypes and the different ways international and domestic legislations regulate sexual and reproductive rights.
Meaghan Beyer (beursaal) - 2018-2022 - Human Rights, Trade and Food Regulation: Towards a Regulatory Framework to Combat NCDs Caused by Unhealthy Diets.
Natalie Schuck (extern) - since 2018 - the right to mental health of affected persons in Ghana.
Veronika Flegar (als tweede promotor) - study on how international institutions identify the vulnerability of voluntary and forced migrants in law, policy and practice
Gezondheidsrecht in Suriname
Dr Muriel Poepon
PhD: 24 januari 2019
Promotoren: Prof Leo Damen en Prof Brigit Toebes
The right to health as the basis for universal access to essential medicines
Dr. S. Katrina Perehudoff
PhD: 5 September 2018
Promotores: Prof. H.V. Hogerzeil and Prof. B.C.A. Toebes
Since 2000, access to essential medicines has been widely acknowledged as part of the right to health. Yet, access to essential medicines for the world’s poor and vulnerable has made little progress except for a few specific medicines such as antiretrovirals for HIV/AIDS. Political indifference and a lack of legal protection for vulnerable people who rely on government-funded health care, drive these global inequities. Human rights principles and language written in national laws and policies can create a supportive environment for universal access to medicines. This thesis is the first systematic investigation of how international human rights law can be translated into policy lessons about access to medicines for national law and policy makers.
This thesis developed a normative compass and policy checklist based on human rights law that can be used as a guide for writing new legislation. Our tool is both a check-list and a wish-list for inserting human rights language in national laws and policies about medicines. National policy makers can use the example legal texts in this thesis as a starting point to design medicines legislation and policy for affordable, equitable, and accountable access to medicines. This policy checklist and these examples may contribute to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development target 3.8 on universal access to essential medicines, and to the World Health Organization’s Medicines & Health Products Strategic Programme 2016-2030 goal 7 to develop model legislation for medicines reimbursement.
Advancing the Right to Health Care in China - Towards Accountability
Dr. Yi (Eva) Zhang, 2014-2018
PhD: 28 May 2018 (cum laude)
Promotores: Prof. B.C.A. Toebes and Prof. M.M.C.A. Brus
Health is indispensable for living a life of dignity. Currently, there is an almost universal commitment to the right to health (care). However, despite the growing legal recognition of this right, empirical evidence suggests that, as a whole, the implementation of the right to health (care) remains largely rhetorical at the domestic level. For example, although China ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in 2001, relatively little attention has been paid to the domestic implementation of the right to health (care). Violations of this right were also identified in reality. Given that China’s health care reform is entering the so-called ‘deep-water’ zone, it is essential for the Chinese government to investigate how to guarantee everyone equal access to health care.
Advancing the Right to Health Care in China analyses the role of accountability, a Western concept that has recently been introduced to China, in advancing the right to health care in light of China’s unique political, legal and social background. In doing so, this book synthesises two different concepts: (1) the right to health; and (2) accountability, and integrates them into an analytical framework for ‘right to health-based accountability’. It further provides a greater understanding of accountability and the various forms of accountability mechanisms that should be established by States. More specifically, it establishes a constructive accountability model that can be applied to specific health concerns in China, as well as in other countries, particularly those with non-electoral regimes.
Practical Applications of the Flexibilities of the Agreement on trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (text see here)
Dr. Ellen 't Hoen, 2016-2018
PhD: 9 April 2018 (cum laude)
Promotores: Prof H.V. Hogerzeil and Prof. B.C.A. Toebes
Access to expensive medicines is becoming a growing problem worldwide. The manufacturers of medicines demand a high price for their products even if the cost of production is low. The HIV/AIDS crisis of the late 1990s showed how high drug prices posed major problems, especially for developing countries. 8000 people a day died of AIDS in developing countries for lack of treatment while life-saving AIDS medicines had become available in high-income countries. Manufacturers asked 15,000 euros per one-year HIV/AIDS treatment. This price was disproportionate to the production costs of the medicines which was around 50 euros. How is this possible? The answer lies in the monopoly position that the manufacturer has as a result of a patent. A patent gives the holder the right to exclude competitors from the market and can, therefore, determine the price. International organizations such as the World Health Organization and the World Trade Organization have taken measures to ensure access to affordable, quality HIV medicines, even when the medicines were patented. As a consequence, the price of HIV-treatment dropped to 80 Euro per patient per year. The result was impressive: millions of people were given access to life-saving treatment of their disease. This dissertation describes the international processes that led to important policy and legal changes in the area of intellectual property to improve access to medicines. The study maps how national governments have made use of flexibilities in patent law and shows what lessons we be drawn from the HIV/AIDS experience for dealing with high drug prices today.
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