Vrachtvaarders van Europa
|PhD ceremony:||Mr J.J. (Jelle Jan) KOOPMANS|
|When:||October 29, 2020|
|Supervisor:||prof. dr. M.G.J. (Maarten G J) Duijvendak|
|Co-supervisor:||dr. J.W. Veluwenkamp|
|Where:||Academy building RUG|
Freighters of Europe. A research on skippers from Makkum in Friesland between 1600 and 1820.The skippers community in Makkum originated from the local industry. In the seventeenth century building materials, like seashell lime and bricks were taken by local skippers to cities in Holland and Germany. From the beginning of the eighteenth century, more and more shipping was commissioned by merchants from bigger cities, like Amsterdam. The Makkum skippers found an alternative from mainly shipping to Amsterdam and places in Germany in shipping to the Baltic. Between 1750 and 1780, the Makkum freight shipping had an unpreceded good period. The downfall of the Makkum shipping was mainly caused by the obstacles of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780 - 1784) and the Frech Revolutionary and Napolenontic Wars (1795 - 1815). The ships were captured of left ashore and the shipowners investments disappeared.