Skip to ContentSkip to Navigation
Over onsWaar vindt u onsprof. dr. ir. C. (Christiaan) Both

prof. dr. ir. C. Both


Personal information


Born in 1969 in The Netherlands, I grew up with a naturalist father, who taught me at an early age the birds in our neighbourhood. From 1988-1993 I studied Biology at the universities of Wageningen, Groningen and Oxford, focusing on avian reproductive ecology. I finished my PhD at the Netherlands Institute of Ecology in 1998 on density dependence and individual optimisation of avian reproductive rates. Since then I have worked as post-doctoral researcher at the universities of Bangor (UK), Groningen, California (Santa Cruz) and again at the Netherlands Institute of Ecology. Since 2004 I joined the Animal Ecology Group of Groningen University again, and in 2007 I obtained a personal research fellowship from the Dutch research council (NWO).


Recent in de media

Melk&Honing TV over Vogeltrek (2014)

Vroege Vogels Radio over Klimaatverandering (2014)

Trouw (2014, deel1, deel2): Hun chip onthult alles (door Rob Buiter)

Groene Amsterdammer (2010) (door Koos van Zomeren)

Vroege Vogels Radio over Buizerds (2015)

SOVON-Nieuws interview (2015)




Both, C., Bijlsma, R.G. & Ouwehand, J. (2016) Repeatability in spring arrival dates in Pied Flycatchers varies among years and sexes. Ardea, In press.

Nicolaus, M., Tinbergen, J.M., Ubels, R., Both, C. & Dingemanse, N.J. (2016) Density fluctuations represent a key process maintaining personality variation in a wild passerine bird. Ecology Letters: In press.

Ouwehand, J., Ahola, M. P., Ausems, A. N. M. A., Bridge, E. S., Burgess, M. D., Hahn, S., Hewson, C. M., Klaassen, R. H. G., Laaksonen, T., Lampe, H. M., Velmala, W., & Both, C. (2015) Light-level geolocators reveal migratory connectivity in European populations of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. J. Avian. Biol.In Press,


Kentie, R., Both, C., Hooijmeijer, J. C. E. W., & Piersma, T. (2015) Management of modern agricultural landscapes increases nest predation rates in Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa. Ibis 157, 

Laaksonen, T., Sirkiä, P. M., Calhim, S., Adamik, P., Artemyev, A. A., Belskii, E., Both, C., Burês, S., Burgess, M. D., Doligez, B., Forsman, J. T., Grinkov, V. G., Hoffmann, D., Ivankina, E. V., Král, M., Lampe, H. M., Moreno, J., Nord, A., Potti, J., Ravussin, P.-A., & Sokolov L.V. (2015) Character displacement and gradual change in plumage trait complex of the pied and collared flycatcher. Journal of Evolutionary Biology,

Tonra, C. M., Both, C., & Marra, P. P. (2015) Incorporating site and year-specific deuterium ratios (d2H) from precipitation into geographic assignments of a migratory bird. J. Avian. Biol. 45

Visser, M. E., Gienapp, P., Husby, A., Morrisey, M., de la Hera, I., Pulido, F., & Both, C. (2015) Effects of spring temperatures on the strength of selection on timing of reproduction in a long-distance migratory bird. Plos Biology 13: e1002120 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002120


Kentie, R, Both, C., Hooijmeijer, J.C.E.W. & Piersma, T. (2014) Age-dependent dispersal and habitat choice in black-tailed godwits Limosa limosa limosa across a mosaic of traditional and modern grassland habitats. Journal of Avian Biology 45: 396-405.

Samplonius, J. & Both, C. (2014) A case of a three species mixed brood after two interspecific nest takeovers. Ardea , 102:105-107

Winkler, D.W., Jørgensen, C., Both, C., Houston, A.I., McNamara, J.M., Levey, D.J.,Partecke, J., Fudickar, A., Kacelnik, A., Roshier., D and Piersma, T. (2014) Cues, strategies, and outcomes: how migrating vertebrates track environmental change. Movement Ecology 2:10


Burger, C., Nord, A., Nilsson, J. A., Gilot-Fromont, E., & Both, C. (2013) Can latitudinal dispersal of locally maladapted individuals speed up adaptation to climate change? Plos One,8, e83176-

Kuhn, K., Schwenk, K., Both, C., Canal, D., Johansson, U. S., van der Mije, S., Toepfer, T., & Paeckert, M. (2013) Differentiation in neutral genes and a candidate gene in the pied flycatcher: using biological archives to track global climate change. Ecology and Evolution,3, 4799-4814.

Michler, S. P. M., Nicolaus, M., van der Velde, M., Radersma, R., Ubels, R., Both, C., Komdeur, J., & Tinbergen, J. M. (2013) Local offspring density and sex ratio affect sex allocation in the great tit. Behavioral Ecology,24, 169-181.


Both, C. (2012) Implications of climate change for habitat use by birds. Birds and habitat: relationships in a changing landscape. (ed. R. A. Fuller), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. PDF

Both, C., van der Jeugd, H., & Robinson, R. A. (2012) Long-distance dispersal in migratory pied flycatchers is relatively common between the UK and The Netherlands. Journal of Avian Biology, 43, 193-197. PDF. Picture male colourmorphs.

Burger, C., Belskii, E., Eeva, T., Laaksonen, T., Magi, M., Mand, R., Qvarnstrom, A., Slagsvold, T., Veen, T., Visser, M. E., Wiebe, K. L., Wiley, C., Wright, J., & Both, C. (2012) Climate change, breeding date and nestling diet: how temperature differentially affects seasonal changes in pied flycatcher diet depending on habitat variation. Journal of Animal Ecology, 81, 926-936.   PDF

Hegemann, A., Matson, K. D., Both, C., & Tieleman, B. I. (2012) Immune function in a free-living bird varies over the annual cycle, but seasonal patterns differ between years. Oecologia, In Press. PDF

Lehtonen, P. K., Laaksonen, T., Artemyev, A. A., Belskii, E., Berg, P. R., Both, C., Buggiotti, L., Bures, S., Burgess, M. D., Bushuev, A. V., Krams, I., Moreno, J., Magi, M., Nord, A., Potti, J., Ravussin, P.-A., Sirkiä, P. M., Saetre, G. P., Winkel, W., & Primmer, C. R. (2012) Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range. Heredity, 108, 431-440. PDF

Nicolaus, M., Michler, S. P. M., Jalvingh, K. M., Ubels, R., van der Velde, M., Komdeur, J., Both, C., & Tinbergen, J. M. (2012a) Social environment affects juvenile dispersal in great tits (Parus major). Journal of Animal Ecology, 81, 827-837. PDF

Nicolaus, M., Michler, S. P. M., Ubels, R., van der Velde, M., Bouwman, K., Both, C., & Tinbergen, J. M. (2012b) Local sex ratio affects the cost of reproduction. Journal of Animal Ecology, 81, 564-572. PDF

Nicolaus, M., Tinbergen, J. M., Bouwman, K. M., Michler, S. P. M., Ubels, R., Both, C., Kempenaers, B., & Dingemanse, N. J. (2012) Experimental evidence for adaptive personalities in a wild passerine bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences,279, 4885-4892.

Schroeder, J., Piersma, T., Groen, N. M., Hooijmeijer, J. C. E. W., Kentie, R., Lourenco, P. M., Schekkerman, H., & Both, C. (2012) Reproductive timing and investment in relation to spring warming and advancing agricultural schedules. Journal of Ornithology, 153, 327-336.



Burger, C. & Both, C. 2011. Translocation as a novel approach to study climate change related long distance dispersal. PLoS One, 6(3): e18143. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018143. PDF

Knudsen, E., Linden, A., Both, C., Jonzen, N., Pulido, F., Saino, N., Sutherland, W. J., Bach, L., Coppack, T., Ergon, T., Gienapp, P., Gill, J. A., Gordo, O., Hedenstrom, A., Lehikoinen, A., Marra, P. P., Moller, A. P., Nilsson, A. L. K., Peron, G., Ranta, E., Rubolini, D., Sparks, T. H., Spina, F., Studds, C. E., Saether, S. A., Tryjanowksi, P., & Stenseth, N. C. 2011. Challenging claims in the study of migratory birds and climate change. Biological Reviews, 86 (2011) 928–946  Link. .

Michler, S. P. M., Nicolaus, M., Ubels, R., van der Velde, M., Both, C., Tinbergen, J. M., & Komdeur, J. (2011a) Do sex-specific densities affect local survival of free-ranging great tits? Behavioral Ecology, 22, 869-879 PDF.

Michler, S. P. M., Nicolaus, M., Ubels, R., van der Velde, M., Komdeur, J., Both, C., & Tinbergen, J. M. (2011b) Sex-specific effects of the local social environment on juvenile post-fledging dispersal in great tits. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 65, 1975-1986 PDF.



Both, C. 2010. Why migrants fail to adapt to climate change: phenotypic plasticity masked by environmental constraints. Current Biology 20, 243-248. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.074  PDF

Both, C. 2010. Food availability, mistiming and climatic change. In Effects of Climate Change on Birds (eds. A. P. Møller, W. Fiedler & P. Berthold). Oxford Univ Press PDF Link

Both, C., van Turnhout, C. A. M., Bijlsma, R. G., Siepel, H., Van Strien, A. J. & Foppen, R. P. B. 2010. Avian population consequences of climate change are most severe for long-distance migrants in seasonal habitats. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 277, 1259-1266 PDF

Michler, S. P. M., Bleeker, M., van der Velde, M., Both, C., Komdeur, J., & Tinbergen, J. M. (2010) Parental provisioning in relation to offspring sex and sex ratio in the great tit (Parus major). Behaviour, 147, 1355-1378 PDF.

Schroeder, J., Kentie, R., van der Velde, M., Hooijmeijer, J., Both, C., Haddrath, O., Baker, A. J. & Piersma, T. 2010. Linking intronic polymorphism on the CHD1-Z gene with fitness correlates in black-tailed godwits. Ibis  152, 368-377 PDF.  



Both, C., van Asch, M., Bijlsma, R. G., van den Burg, A. B. & Visser, M. E. 2009. Climate change and unequal phenological changes across four trophic levels: constraints or adaptations. J. Anim. Ecol. 78, 73-83. PDF

Brouwer, L., Tinbergen, J. M., Both, C., Bristol, R., Richardson, D. S. & Komdeur, J. 2009. Experimental evidence for density-dependent reproduction in a cooperatively breeding passerine. Ecology 90, 729-741. PDF

Lehtonen, P. K., Laaksonen, T., Artemyev, A. A., Belskii, E., Both, C., Bures, S., Bushuev, A. V., Krams, I., Moreno, J., Magi, M., Nord, A., Potti, J., Ravussin, P.-A., Sirkiä, P. M., Saetre, G. P., & Primmer, C. R. (2009) Geographic patterns of genetic differentiation and plumage colour variation are different in the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Mol. Ecol. 18 , 4463–4476 .

Nicolaus, M., Both, C., Ubels, R., Edelaar, P. & Tinbergen, J. M. 2009. No experimental evidence for local competition in the nestling phase as a driving force for density-dependent avian clutch size. J. Anim. Ecol. 78, 828-838. PDF

Nicolaus, M., Michler, S. P. M., Ubels, R., van der Velde, M., Komdeur, J., Both, C. & Tinbergen, J. M. 2009. Sex-specific effects of altered competition on nestling growth and survival: an experimental manipulation of brood size and sex ratio. J. Anim. Ecol. 78, 414-426. PDF

Schroeder, J., Lourenco, P. M., Hooijmeijer, J. C. E. W., Both, C. & Piersma, T. 2009. A possible case of contemporary selection leading to a decrease in sexual plumage dimorphism in a grassland-breeding shorebird. Behav. Ecol. 20, 797-807. PDF

Visser, M. E., Perdeck, A. C., van Balen, J. H. & Both, C. 2009. Climate change leads to decreasing bird migration distances. Glob. Change Biol. 15, 1859-1865. PDF



Saether, B. E., Engen, S., Grotan, V., Bregnballe, T., Both, C., Tryjanowski, P., Leivits, A., Wright, J., Moller, A. P., Visser, M. E. & Winkel, W. 2008. Forms of density regulation and (quasi-) stationary distributions of population sizes in birds. Oikos 117, 1197-1208.

Schroeder, J., Lourenco, P. M., van der Velde, M., Hooijmeijer, J. C. E. W., Both, C. & Piersma, T. 2008. Sexual dimorphism in plumage and size in Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa. Ardea 96, 25-37.

Van Den Brink, V., Schroeder, J., Both, C., Lourenco, P. M., Hooijmeijer, J. C. E. W. & Piersma, T. 2008. Space use by Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during settlement at a previous or a new nest location. Bird Study 55, 188-193.





Both, C. 2007. Comment on " Rapid Advance of Spring Arrival Dates in Long-Distance Migratory Birds " . Science 315, 598b.

Both, C. & te Marvelde, L. 2007. Climate change and timing of avian breeding and migration throughout Europe. Climate Research 35, 93-105.




Both, C., Bouwhuis, S., Lessells, C. M. & Visser, M. E. 2006. Climate change and population declines in a long distance migratory bird. Nature 441, 81-83. PDF

Both, C., Sanz, J. J., Artemyev, A. A., Blaauw, B., Cowie, R. J., Dekhuijzen, A. J., Enemar, A., Järvinen, A., Nyholm, N. E. I., Potti, J., Ravussin, P.-A., Silverin, B., Slater, F. M., Sokolov, L. V., Winkel, W., Wright, J. & Zang, H. 2006. Pied flycatchers travelling from Africa to breed in Europe: differential effects of winter and migration conditions on breeding date. Ardea 94, 511-525.

Schroeder, J., Hooijmeijer, J., Both, C. & Piersma, T. 2006. Individual characteristics, timing and environmental factors influencing reproductive success in Black-tailed Godwits. Journal of Ornithology 147, 248-249.

Sinervo, B., Calsbeek, R., Comendant, T., Both, C., Adamopoulou, C. & Clobert, J. 2006. Genetic and maternal determinants of effective dispersal: The effect of sire genotype and size at birth in side-blotched lizards. Am. Nat. 168, 88-99.




2007- 2011  Postdoc (VIDI), Animal Ecology Group, University of Groningen

2003- 2006  Post-doc at the Animal Ecology Group, University of Groningen

2001- 2003  Post-doc, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (with M.E. Visser)

1999 - 2001 Post-doc University of Groningen (with Joost Tinbergen)

1999            Post-doctoral period Univ of California Santa Cruz (with Prof B. Sinervo).

1998            Postdoc, University of Wales, Bangor, with Prof. J. Wright

1994 - 1998 PhD at the Netherlands Institute of Ecology and the University of Utrecht.

1993            Undergraduate project, University of Oxford, with Prof. J.R. Krebs.

1992            Undergraduate project, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, with JM Tinbergen.


Verkregen Beursen

ESF-travel grant (1998) used to visit University of Wales

NATO-science fellowship (1998) used to visit Univ California

N.W.O. 3-year post-doc grant (2001) (with M.E. Visser).

N.W.O. PhD-studentship (2002) (with J. Komdeur & J.M. Tinbergen).

N.W.O. 3-year post-doc grant (2004) (with N.J. Dingemanse)

Research grant Prins Bernhard Fund (2005)

N.W.O. VIDI personal research fellowship  (2006), starting 1 January 2007

Ministery of Agriculture (2007): Field research Black-tailed Godwits


Redacties tijdschriften:

Ardea, International journal of Ornithology, : 2000-; Journal of Animal Ecology2006-



TIME Magazine, National Geographic, Scientific American, New Scientist, Al Gore Movie, numerous international and national newspapers and radio interviews.


Laatst gewijzigd:14 januari 2016 13:25


Linneausborg, kamer 542

Joyce Rietveld:
050 36 32040 (Secretariaat Conservation Ecology Group)