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ResearchHeymans InstituteTraffic and Environmental Psychology (Verkeerspsychologie, Omgevingspsychologie)

Key Publications

Publications, linked to DOI (download availability depends on your university or personal subscription to the journal). More and more papers will be published and accessible for all (Open Access). If available the self archived final pre-published version (not in publisher layout but the identical text) is added, accessible to the public (indicated as Green Open Access). Alternatively contact the author - see staff- or mail to info@trafficpsychologygroningen.info for a reprint)

Acceptance

Van der Laan, J.D., Heino, A., & De Waard, D. (1997). A simple procedure for the assessment of acceptance of advanced transport telematics. Transportation Research - Part C: Emerging Technologies, 5, 1-10.

(Adaptive) Automation

Merat, N. & De Waard, D. (Eds.) (2014). Vehicle Automation and Driver Behaviour. Transportation Research Part F, 27 Part B, 193-294.

Merat, N. & De Waard, D. (2014).Human factors implications of vehicle automation: current understanding and future directions. Transportation Research Part F, 27 Part B, 193-195. [Green Open Access]

Dijksterhuis, C., Stuiver, A., Mulder, L.J.M., Brookhuis, K.A., & De Waard, D. (2012). An adaptive driver support system: user experiences and driving performance in a simulator. Human Factors , 54. 772-785 .

Stuiver, A. Mulder, L.J.M., Brookhuis, K.A., de Waard, D. & Dijksterhuis, C. (2011). Adaptive Task Support Based on Dynamic Human State Estimation. In P. Kellenberger (Eds.) SASO2010, fourth IEEE International conference on self-adaptive and self-organizing systems, Workshop W5, Self-organisation in Pervasive Adaptive Systems (PerAda) (pp.153-158). Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE.

Mulder, L.J.M., Dijksterhuis, C., Stuiver, A., & De Waard, D. (2009). Cardiovascular state changes during performance of a simulated ambulance dispatchers’ task: potential use for adaptive support. Applied Ergonomics, 40, 965-977.

Brookhuis, K.A., De Waard, D., & Fairclough, S.H. (2003). Criteria for driver impairment. Ergonomics, 46, 433-445.

De Waard, D. Brookhuis, K.A., Fabriek, E., & Van Wolffelaar, P.C. (2004). Driving the Phileas, a new automated public transport vehicle. Proceedings ICCTP2004. Originally available from http://www.psychology.nottingham.ac.uk/IAAPdiv13/ICTTP2004papers2/ITS/deWaard.pdf

De Waard, D., Van der Hulst, M., Hoedemaeker, M., & Brookhuis, K.A. (1999a). Driver behavior in an emergency situation in the Automated Highway System. Transportation Human Factors, 1, 67-82.

De Waard, D. & Brookhuis, K.A. (1991). Assessing driver status: a demonstration experiment on the road. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 23, 297-307.

ADAS, Advanced Driver Support Systems

Dijksterhuis, C., Lewis-Evans, B., Jelijs, B., De Waard, D., Brookhuis, K., & Tucha, O.M. (2016).In-Car Usage Based Insurance feedback strategies. A comparative driving simulator study.Ergonomics, 59, 1158-1170.

Dotzauer, M., de Waard, D., Pöhler, G., Caljouw, S.R., & Brouwer, W.H. (2015). Behavioral adaptation of young and older drivers to an intersection crossing advisory system. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 74, 24-32. [Green Open Access]

Dijksterhuis, C., Lewis-Evans, B., Jelijs, B., De Waard, D., Brookhuis, K., & Tucha, O. (2015). The impact of immediate or delayed feedback on driving behaviour in a simulated Pay-As-You-Drive system. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 75, 93–104.

Dotzauer, M., De Waard, D., Caljouw, S.R., & Brouwer, W.H. (2013). Longer-term exposure to an intersection assistant: effects of ADAS use on intersection performance of drivers diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 2 , 223-245

Dotzauer, M., Caljouw, S.R., de Waard, D., & Brouwer, W.H. (2013). Intersection assistance: A safe solution for older drivers? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 59, 522-528.

Uchida, N., De Waard, D, & Brookhuis, K.A. (2011). Countermeasures to prevent detection failure of a vehicle approaching on collision course. Applied Ergonomics, 42, 540-547 .

Brookhuis, K.A., Van Driel, C.J.G., Hof, T., Van Arem, B, & Hoedemaeker, M. (2008). Driving with a congestion assistant; mental workload and acceptance. Applied ergonomics, 40, 1019–1025.

Carsten, O.M.J., Brookhuis, K.A. (2005). The relationship between distraction and driving performance: towards a test regime for in-vehicle information systems. Transportation Research part F: Psychology and Behaviour, 8, 75-77.

De Waard, D., Hernández-Gress, N., & Brookhuis, K.A. (2001). The feasibility of detecting phone-use related driver distraction. International Journal of Vehicle Design, 26 , 85-95

Brookhuis, K.A. & De Waard, D. (1999). Limiting speed, towards an Intelligent Speed Adapter (ISA). Transportation Research part F, 2, 81-90

De Waard, D., Van Der Hulst, M., & Brookhuis, K.A. (1999). Elderly and young driver's reaction to an in-car enforcement and tutoring system. Applied Ergonomics, 30 , 147-157.

Brookhuis, K., De Waard, D., Peters, B., & Bekiaris, E. (1998). SAVE -System for Detection of Driver Impairment and Emergency Handling. IATSS Research, 22, 37-42.

De Waard, D., & Brookhuis, K.A. (1997). Behavioural adaptation to warning and tutoring messages. Results from an on-the-road and simulator test. Heavy Vehicle Systems, International Journal of Vehicle Design, 4, 222-234.

Brookhuis, K.A. & De Waard, D. (1993). The use of psychophysiology to assess driver status. Ergonomics, 36, 1099-1110.

Car Following

Brookhuis, K.A., De Waard, D., & Mulder, L.J.M. (1994). Measuring driving performance by car-following in traffic. Ergonomics, 37, 427-434.

De Waard, D., & Brookhuis, K.A. (2000). Drug effects on driving performance, letter to the editor. Annals of Internal Medicine, 133, p. 656.

Cycling

Engbers, C., Dubbeldam, R., Brusse-Keizer, M., Buurke, J., de Waard, D., & Rietman, H. (2018).Characteristics of older cyclists (65+) and factors associated with self-reported cycling accidents in the Netherlands.Transportation Research Part F, 56, 522-530 .

Jelijs, B., Heutink, J.H.C., De Waard, D., Brookhuis, K.A., & Melis-Dankers, B.J.M. (in press, available). Key factors for the bicycle use of visually impaired people: a Delphi study.Disability and Rehabilitation . [open access]

Puchades, V.M., Fassina, F., Fraboni, F., De Angelis, M., Prati, G., de Waard, D., & Pietrantoni, L. (2018).The Role of Perceived Competence and Risk Perception in Cycling Near Misses.Safety Science, 105, 167-177.

De Waard, D., Westerhuis, F., Joling, D., Weiland, S., Stadtbäumer, R., & Kaltofen, L. (2017). Visual map and instruction-based bicycle navigation: a comparison of effects on behaviour. Ergonomics, , 60 , 1283-1296. [open access]

Westerhuis, F., & De Waard, D. (2017). Reading cyclist intentions: can a lead cyclist’s behaviour be predicted? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 105, 146-155.

Westerhuis, F., Jelijs, L.H., Fuermaier, A.B.M., & De Waard, D. (2017).Using optical illusions in the shoulder of a cycle path to affect the course of cyclists.Transportation Research Part F, 48, 38-51.

Westerhuis, F., & De Waard, D. (2016). Using commercial GPS action cameras for gathering naturalistic cycling data. SICE Journal of The Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, 55, 422-430. [free access]

De Waard, D, Lambers, A.A.A., & Brookhuis, K.A. (2016). Crossing time of older cyclists at signalised junctions. The International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 4, 1-9 . [Green Open Access]

De Waard, D., Houwing, S., Lewis-Evans, B., Twisk, D., & Brookhuis, K. (2016).Bicycling under the influence of alcohol. Transportation Research Part F, 41, 302–306 . [Green Open Access]

De Waard, D., Westerhuis, F., & Lewis-Evans, B. (2015). More screen operation than calling: The results of observing cyclists’ behaviour while using mobile phones. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 76, 42-48. [Green Open Access]

De Waard, D., Lewis-Evans, B., Jelijs, B., Tucha, O.M., & Brookhuis, K. (2014). The effects of operating a touch screen smartphone and other common activities performed while bicycling on cycling behaviour. Transportation Research Part F, 22 , 196-206 [Green Open Access]

Schepers, J.P., den Brinker, B.P.L.M., de Waard, D, Twisk, D., Schwab, A.L., & Smeets, J.B.J. (2013) Studying the role of vision in cycling: Critique on restricting research to fixation behaviour. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 59, 466– 468.

Fabriek, E., de Waard, D. & Schepers, J.P. (2012). Improving the visibility of bicycle infrastructure. The International  Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 1, 98–115 [access]

Goldenbeld, Ch., Houtenbos, M., Ehlers, E., & De Waard, D. (2012). The use and risk of portable electronic devices while cycling among different age groups. Journal of Safety Research, 43, 1-8 .

De Waard, D., Edlinger, E., & Brookhuis, K.A. (2011). Effects of listening to music, and of using a handheld and handsfree telephone on cycling behaviour. Transportation research Part F, 14, 626-637. [Green Open Access]

De Waard, D., Schepers, P., Ormel, W., & Brookhuis, K.A. (2010). Mobile phone use while cycling: incidence and effects on behaviour and safety. Ergonomics, 53, 30-42. [Green Open Access]

Driver Behaviour

Harms, I. M., & Brookhuis, K. A. (2017). Traffic management: assessing various countermeasures to improve detection failure of changes in speed limit signals.Applied Ergonomics, 61, 44-52 .

Lewis-Evans B, de Waard D, Jolij J, Brookhuis KA (2012) What You May Not See Might Slow You Down Anyway: Masked Images and Driving. PLoS ONE 7(1): e29857. [open access]

Lewis-Evans, B., De Waard, D.,  & Brookhuis, K.A. (2011). Speed maintenance under cognitive load - Implications for theories of driver behaviour. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43 , 1497-1507. [Green Open Access]

Hamstra, M.R.W., Bolderdijk, J.W., & Veldstra, J.L. (2011). Everyday risk taking as a function of regulatory focus. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 134-137.

Lewis-Evans, B. & Rothengatter, T. (2009). Task difficulty, risk, effort and comfort in a simulated driving task—Implications for Risk Allostasis Theory. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 41, 1053–1063.

Lewis-Evans, B., De Waard, D. & Brookhuis, K.A. (2010).That’s close enough—A threshold effect of time headway on the experience of risk, task difficulty, effort, and comfort. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42, 1926-1933. [Green Open Access]

Michon, J.A.(1989). Explanatory pitfalls and rule-based driver models. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 21, 341-35

Rothengatter, T. (2002). Drivers’ illusions – no more risk. Transportation Research Part F, 5, 249-258.

Driving / mobility of patients

Jelijs, B., Heutink, J.H.C., De Waard, D., Brookhuis, K.A., & Melis-Dankers, B.J.M. (in press, available). Key factors for the bicycle use of visually impaired people: a Delphi study.Disability and Rehabilitation . [open access]

Piersma, D., Fuermaier, A.B.M., De Waard, D., Davidse, R.J., De Groot, J., Doumen, M.J.A., Bredewoud, R.A., Claesen, R., Lemstra, A.W., Scheltens, P., Vermeeren, A., Ponds, R., Verhey, F., De Deyn, P.P., Brouwer, W.H. & Tucha, O.M. (2018). Assessing Fitness to Drive in Patients With Different Types of Dementia. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 32, 70–75. [open access]

Cordes, C., Heutink, J.H.C., Brookhuis, K.A., Brouwer, W.H., & Melis-Dankers, B.J.M. (2018).Driving slow motorised vehicles with visual impairment – a simulator study. Cogent Psychology [open access]

Fuermaier, A.B.M., Piersma, D., de Waard, D., Davidse, R.J., de Groot, J., Doumen, M.J.A., Bredewoud, R.A., Claesen, R., Lemstra, A.W., Scheltens, P., Vermeeren, A., Ponds, R., Verhey, F., Brouwer, W.H., & Tucha, O. (2017). Assessing fitness to drive - A validation study on patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment. Traffic Injury Prevention, 18, 145-149. [open access]

Cordes C., Heutink, J., Tucha, O.M., Brookhuis, K.A., Brouwer, W.H., & Melis-Dankers, B.J.M. (2017). Vision-related fitness to drive mobility scooters: A practical driving test. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 49, 270-276. [open access]

Cordes, C., Heutink, J.H.C., Brookhuis, K.A., Brouwer, W.H., & Melis-Dankers, B.J.M. (2017). Mobility scooter driving ability in visually impaired individuals. Disability and Rehabilitation, 40, 1372-1378. [open access]

Piersma, D., Fuermaier, A.B.M., De Waard, D., Davidse, R.J., De Groot, J., Doumen, M.J.A., Bredewoud, R.A., Claesen, R., Lemstra, A.W., Vermeeren, A., Ponds, R., Verhey, F., Brouwer, W.H., & Tucha, O. (2016). Prediction of Fitness To Drive in Patients with Alzheimer’s Dementia. PLoS ONE, 11(2): e0149566. [open access]

Fuermaier, A.B.M., Tucha, L., Lewis-Evans, B., Koerts, J., De Waard, D., Brookhuis, K., Aschenbrenner, S., Thome, J., Lange, K.W., & Tucha, O. (2017).Driving and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Neural Transmission, 124, 55-67. [open access]

Dotzauer, M., Caljouw, S.R., De Waard, D., & Brouwer, W.H. (2015). Longer-term effects of ADAS use on speed and headway control in drivers diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. Traffic Injury Prevention, 16, 10-16.

Piersma, D., De Waard, D., Davidse, R., Tucha, O., & Brouwer, W. (2016) Car drivers with dementia: different complications due to different aetiologies? Traffic Injury Prevention, 17, 9-23.

Drugs & Driving

Van de Loo, A., Mackus, M., Korte-Bouws, G., Brookhuis, K., Garssen, J. & Verster, J. (2017).Urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. Psychopharmacology, 234, 73-77. [open access]

Veldstra, J.L., Bosker, W.M., De Waard, D., Ramaekers, J.G., & Brookhuis, K.A. (2015).Comparing treatment effects of oral THC on simulated and on-the-road driving performance: testing the validity of driving simulator drug research. Psychopharmacology, 232, 2911-2919. [open access]

Veldstra, J.L., Brookhuis, K.A., De Waard, D. , Molmans, B.H.W., Verstraete, A., Skopp, G. & Jantos, R. (2012). Effects of Alcohol (BAC 0.5 promille) and ecstasy (MDMA 100 mg) on simulated driving performance and traffic safety. Psychopharmacology, 222, 377-390. [open access]

Brookhuis, K.A., De Waard, D., Steyvers, F.J.J.M., & H. Bijsterveld, H. (2011). Let them experience a ride under the influence of alcohol; A successful intervention program?. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43, 906-910.

Brookhuis, K.A., De Waard, D. , & Samyn, N. (2004). Effects of MDMA (Ecstasy), and multiple drugs use on driving performance and traffic safety. Psychopharmacology, 173, 440-445.

Emotions

Űnal, A.B., De Waard, D., Epstude, K., & Steg, L. (2013).Driving with Music: Effects on Arousal and Performance. Transportation Research Part F, 21, 52-65

Lewis-Evans B, de Waard D, Jolij J, Brookhuis KA (2012) What You May Not See Might Slow You Down Anyway: Masked Images and Driving. PLoS ONE 7(1): e29857. [open access]

Van der Zwaag, M.D., Janssen, J.H., Nass, C., Westerink, J.H.D.M., Chowdhury, S. & de Waard, D. (2013). Using music to change mood while driving. Ergonomics, 56, 1504-1514.

Van der Zwaag, M.D., Dijksterhuis, C., De Waard, D., Mulder, L.J.M., Westerink, J.H.D.M., & Brookhuis, K.A. (2012). The influence of music on mood and performance while driving. Ergonomics . 55, 12-22.

Mesken, J., Hagenzieker, M.P., Rothengatter, T., & De Waard, D. (2007). Frequency, determinants, and consquences of different drivers’ emotions: an on-the-road study using self-reports, (observed) behaviour, and physiology. Transportation Research Part F, 10, 458-475.

Environmental relevant behaviour

Bolderdijk, J.W., Knockaert, J., E.M. Steg, & Verhoef, E.T. (2011). Effects of Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance on young drivers’ speed choice: Results of a Dutch field experiment. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43, 1181-1186.

Abrahamse, W., Steg, L., Vlek, Ch., & Rothengatter, T. (2007). The effect of tailored information, goal setting and tailored feedback on household energy use, energy-related behaviors and behavioral antecedents. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27, 265-276

Abrahamse, W., Steg, L., Vlek, Ch., & Rothengatter, T. (2005). A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25, 273-291

De Groot, J.I.M. & Steg, L. (2009).Mean or green: Which values can promote stable pro-environmental behavior? Conservation Letters, 2 , 61-66

De Groot, J. I. M. & Steg, L. (2009). Morality and prosocial behavior: the role of awareness, responsibility and norms in the norm activation model. Journal of Social Psychology, 149, 425-449

De Groot, J., & Steg, L. (2008). Value orientations to explain beliefs related to environmental significant behavior: How to measure egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric value orientations. Environment and Behavior, 40, 330-354

De Groot, J., & Steg, L. (2007). Value orientations and environmental beliefs in five countries: Validity of an instrument to measure egoistic, altruistic and biospheric value orientations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38, 318-332

Gärling, T., Steg, L. (Eds., 2007). Threats from car traffic to the quality of urban life: problems, causes, and solutions. Amsterdam: Elsevier

Keizer, K., Lindenberg, S., & Steg, L. (2008). The spreading of disorder. Science, 322, 1681- 1685

Lindenberg, S., & Steg, L. (2007). Normative, gain and hedonic goal-frames guiding environmental behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 63, 117-137

Pals, R., Steg, L., Siero, F.W., & Van Oudenhoven-van der Zee (2009). Development of the PRCQ: A measure of perceived restorative characteristics of zoo attractions. Journal of Environmental Psychology , 29, 441–449

Schuitema, G., & Steg, L. (2008). The role of revenue use in the acceptability of transport pricing policies. Transportation Research F: Psychology and Behaviour, 11, 221-231

Steg, L. (2008). Promoting household energy conservation. Energy Policy, 36, 4449-4453

Steg, L., & Vlek, C. (2009). Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: An integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29 , 309-317

Steg, L., Dreijerink, L., & Abrahamse, W. (2006). Why are energy policies acceptable and effective? Environment and Behavior, 38, 92-111

Steg, L., Buunk, A.P., & Rothengatter, J.A. (Eds., 2008). Applied social psychology: understanding and managing social problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Steg, L., Dreijerink, L., & Abrahamse, W. (2005). Factors influencing the acceptability of energy policies: testing VBN theory. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25, 415-425

Verhoef, E., Bliemer, M., Steg, L., & Van Wee, B. (Eds., 2008). Pricing in road transport: A multi-disciplinary perspective. Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar

Human Factors
See the Books section of the Europe Chapter of the HFES Europe Chapter website

Law enforcement

Rothengatter, T.(1988). Risk and the absence of pleasure: a motivational approach to modelling road user behaviour. Ergonomics, 31, 599-607

De Waard, D. & Rooijers, T. (1994). An experimental study to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods and intensities of law enforcement on driving speed on motorways. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 26, 751-765.

Licensing

Lewis-Evans, B. (2010). Crash involvement during the different phases of the New Zealand Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS). Journal of Safety Research, 41, 359-365.

Mental Workload

De Waard, D. & Lewis-Evans, B. (2014). Self-report scales alone cannot capture mental workload. A reply to De Winter, Controversy in human factors constructs and the explosive use of the NASA TLX: A measurement perspective. Cognition Technology & Work, 16, 303-305. [Green Open Access]

Widyanti, A., De Waard, D., Johnson, A., & Mulder, B. (2013). National culture moderates the influence of mental effort on subjective and cardiovascular measures. Ergonomics, 56, 182-194.

Widyanti, A., Johnson, A., & De Waard, D. (2013). Adaptation of the Rating Scale Mental Effort (RSME) for use in Indonesia. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 43 , 70-76.

Dijksterhuis, C., Brookhuis, K.A. & De Waard, D. (2011). Effects of steering demand on lane keeping behaviour, self-reports, and physiology. A simulator study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43, 1074-1081 .

Brookhuis, K.A. & De Waard, D. (2010). Monitoring drivers' mental workload in driving simulators using psychophysiological measures. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42 , 898-903.

De Waard, D. Van den Bold, T.G.M.P.R., & Lewis-Evans, B. (2010). Driver hand positions on the steering wheel while merging into motorway traffic. Transportation Research Part F, 13 , 129-140. [Green Open Access]

De Waard, D., Dijksterhuis, C., & Brookhuis, K.A. (2009). Merging into heavy motorway traffic by young and elderly drivers . Accident Analysis and Prevention, 41, 588-597. [Green Open Access]

De Waard, D., Kruizinga, A., & Brookhuis, K.A. (2008). The consequences of an increase in heavy goods vehicles for passenger car drivers’ mental workload and behaviour: A simulator study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40, 818-828. [Green Open Access]

Brookhuis, K.A., De Waard, D. (2002). On the assessment of (mental) workload and other subjective qualifications. Ergonomics, 45, 1026-1030.

De Waard, D. (1996). The measurement of drivers' mental workload. PhD thesis, University of Groningen. Haren: University of Groningen, Traffic Research Centre.

Brookhuis, K.A., De Vries, G., & De Waard, D. (1991).The effects of mobile telephoning on driving performance. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 23, 309-316

Psychophysiology

Stuiver, A., Brookhuis, K.A., de Waard, D., Dijksterhuis, C., Mulder, B (2014) Short-term Cardiovascular Measures for Driver Support: Increasing Sensitivity for Detecting Changes in Mental Workload. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 92, 35-41.

Dijksterhuis, C., de Waard, D., Brookhuis, K.A., Mulder, L.J.M., & de Jong, R. (2013). Classifying visuomotor workload in a driving simulator using subject specific spatial brain patterns. Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics, 7, article 149. [open access]

Stuiver, A., De Waard, D., Brookhuis, K.A., Dijksterhuis, C., Lewis-Evans, B. & Mulder, L.J.M. (2012). Short-Term Cardiovascular Responses to Changing Task Demands. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 85, 153-160

Road layout

Vrieling, J.H., De Waard, D., & Brookhuis, K.A. (2014). Driving behaviour while driving through two types of road works. The International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 3, 141-148. [open access]

De Waard, D., Steyvers, F.J.J.M., & Brookhuis, K.A. (2004). How much visual road information is needed to drive safely and comfortably? Safety Science, 42, 639-655. [Green Open Access]

Steyvers, F.J.J.M. & De Waard, D. (2000). Road-edge delineation in rural areas: effects on driving behaviour. Ergonomics, 43, 223-238.

De Waard, D., Jessurun, M., Steyvers, F.J.J.M., Raggatt, P.T.F., & Brookhuis, K.A. (1995). Effect of road layout and road environment on driving performance, drivers' physiology and road appreciation. Ergonomics, 38, 1395-1407.

Traffic signs

De Waard, D., Brookhuis,K.A., & Mesken, J. (2005). Evaluation of legibility of not properly reflecting signs. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 35, 645-651. [Green Open Access]

Travel behaviour

Brookhuis, K.A., Dicke, M. (2009) The effects of travel information presentation through nomadic systems on driver behaviour. European Transport Research Review, 1,  67-75. [open access]

Technical Reports

A few TRC (Traffic Research Centre) and COV reports (Centre for Environmental and Traffic Psychology) reports can be found here

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