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Access to the bar after your LLB/LLM studies

In The Netherlands

In order to gain access to the bar or judiciary in the Netherlands, students need to have acquired the so-called 'effectus civilis' ('civiel effect'). This 'effectus civilis' can be obtained by participating in several Dutch law courses dealing with all main fields of law. The University of Groningen offers a shortened Bachelor of Laws programme (taught in Dutch) for students who would be interested in getting this 'effectus civilis' and who are currently enrolled in the LLB International and European Law.

Other Dutch Law faculties in the Netherlands might have different requirements.  More information about the specific requirements for access to the Dutch bar can be found at the site of the Dutch Bar Association (the 'Nederlandse Orde van Advocaten'). Please keep in mind that all courses which will lead to the 'effectus civilis' will be offered in Dutch and thus your level of Dutch language proficiency needs to be a minimum of B2 (CEFR).

In Other Countries

Students wishing to pass the bar exam in other countries should consult the websites of the bar associations or judiciary of the specific country they seek to practice law in for specific details regarding eligibility.

Last modified:20 July 2021 12.36 p.m.