dr. D.C. van der Linden
The aim of this project is to investigate how conflicting memories of civil war can undermine confessional coexistence and re-ignite conflict, focusing on Catholic and Protestant memories about the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598). After the civil war had ended in 1598, the Edict of Nantes seemed to usher in an age of peace and religious toleration, but during the reign of Louis XIV Protestants were persecuted again and forced to convert to Catholicism in 1685. This project postulates that religious coexistence eventually broke down because Protestants and Catholics developed rival memory cultures that sustained division and tension throughout the seventeenth century. Precisely because they disputed the past, Protestants and Catholics continued to see the other as their enemy and were unable to accept religious diversity. In analysing memory as a key factor in re-igniting religious conflict, this project offers a new perspective on the challenge of religious diversity and reconciliation.
In 1926, a seventeenth-century trunk of letters was bequeathed to the Museum voor Communicatie in The Hague, then as now the centre of government, politics, and trade in The Netherlands. The trunk belonged to one of the most active postmasters of the day, Simon de Brienne, a man at the heart of European communication networks. It contains an extraordinary archive: 2600 letters sent from all over Europe to this axis of communication, none of which were ever delivered. In the seventeenth century, the recipient also paid postal and delivery charges. But if the addressee was deceased, absent, or uninterested, no fees could be collected. Postmasters usually destroyed such “dead letters”, but Brienne preserved them, hoping that someone would retrieve the letters – and pay the postage. Hence the nickname for the trunk: “the piggy bank” (spaarpotje). The trunk freezes a moment in history, allowing us to glimpse the early modern world as it went about its daily business. The letters are uncensored, unedited, and 600 of them even remain unopened. The archive itself has remained virtually untouched by historians until it was recently rediscovered. Our international and interdisciplinary team of researchers has now begun a process of digitization, preservation, transcription, and editing that will reveal its secrets for the first time – even, we hope, those of the unopened letters.
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