Smart, responsive materials
This work aims at understanding and designing smart and responsive materials by developing computational models (molecular dynamics, solid-fluid interaction techniques and finite-element models) for application in, e.g., NEMS/MEMS, microfluidic systems and lab-on-chip applications. Emphasis is on magneto-, electro- and photomechanical interactions.
1. Switchable surface topographies by photo-responsive liquid crystal coatings
We use azobenzene-modified liquid-crystal polymers to design coatings that can be switched by light. We focus on different surface topographies and analyze the underlying physical mechanisms by using continuum modelling to describe the light attenuation process and the internal stress distributions that are key in generating the patterns. We study micro-domain, linearly patterned and fingerprint coatings, the effect of dual wavelength light and we generate surface waves by rotating a polarized light source.
PhD student: L.Liu. In collaboration with D.J. Broer (Eindhoven University of Technology).
- Liu, L., & Onck, P. R. (2018). Topographical changes in photo-responsive liquid crystal films: a computational analysis. Soft Matter. DOI: 10.1039/c7sm02474f
- Liu, L., & Onck, P. R. (2017). Enhanced Deformation of Azobenzene-Modified Liquid Crystal Polymers under Dual Wavelength Exposure: A Photophysical Model. Physical Review Letters, 119(5), . DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.057801
- Liu*, D., Liu*, L., Onck, P. R., & Broer, D. J. (2015). Reverse switching of surface roughness in a self-organized polydomain liquid crystal coating. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 112(13), 3880-3885. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1419312112, *contributed equally to this work.
2. Digital microfluidics: droplet transport on switchable surfaces
In digital-microfluidic systems, discrete droplets containing biofluids or particles are used as small reactors, and transporting droplets with full control over their contents is an essential property of such systems. Here we show that surface topographies made from switchable materials are able to transport droplets through dynamic pinning forces. The transport performance was demonstrated in both 2D and 3D and its dependence on the fluid and structural parameters was numerically investigated by means of a two-phase computational fluid dynamics model.
PhD student: E. de Jong. In collaboration with J. den Toonder (Eindhoven University of Technology).
3. Artificial cilia and flagella
Cilia and flagella are long hair-like projections from the surface of cells that play an important role in cell motility. Cells and micro-organisms use cilia and flagella to propel themselves or to propel the fluid surrounding them. Here we developed a computational model to study the beating of flagella, demonstrating that an overall regular beating pattern can emerge due to the spatial and temporal coordination of the individual motor proteins that drive the motion at the nanoscale. In addition, we use the natural beating pattern as inspiration to design artificial cilia and flagella. We use polymeric films embedded by magnetic nanoparticles that are actuated by applying a rotating or oscillating magnetic field. We demonstrated that artifical cilia and flagella can be generated that pump fluid through microfluidic channels and that can swim through confined spaces. Current work aims at designing artificial cilia for use as active antifouling coatings.
PhD students: R. Zhang, S. Namdeo, S.N. Khaderi. In collaboration with J. den Toonder (Eindhoven University of Technology).
- Zhang, S., Wang, Y., Lavrijsen, R., Onck, P. R., & den Toonder, J. M. J. (2018). Versatile microfluidic flow generated by moulded magnetic artificial cilia. Sensors and actuators b-Chemical, 263, 614-624. DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2018.01.189
- Namdeo, S., & Onck, P. R. (2016). Emergence of flagellar beating from the collective behavior of individual ATP-powered dyneins . Physical Review E , 94(4), . DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.042406
- Khaderi, S. N., den Toonder, J. M. J., & Onck, P. R. (2015). Magnetic Artificial Cilia for Microfluidic Propulsion. In S. P. A. Bordas, & D. S. Balint (Eds.), Advances in Applied Mechanics. (Vol. 48, pp. 1-78). Academic Press. DOI: 10.1016/bs.aams.2015.10.001
- Namdeo, S., Khaderi, S. N., & Onck, P. R. (2014). Numerical modelling of chirality-induced bi-directional swimming of artificial flagella . Proceedings of the royal society a-Mathematical physical and engineering sciences , 470(2162), . DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2013.0547
- Namdeo, S., Khaderi, S. N., & Onck, P. R. (2013). Swimming dynamics of bidirectional artificial flagella . Physical Review E , 88(4), 043013-1-043013-11. . DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.043013
- den Toonder, J. M. J., & Onck, P. R. (2013). Microfluidic manipulation with artificial/bioinspired cilia . Trends in Biotechnology , 31(2), 85-91. DOI: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2012.11.005
- Khaderi, S., den Toonder, J. M. J., & Onck, P. (2013). Computational Design of Magnetic Artificial Cilia. In J. M. J. den Toonder, & P. R. Onck (Eds.), Artificial Cilia. Cambridge, UK: The Royal Society of Chemistry.
- Khaderi, S., Hussong, J., Westerweel, J., den Toonder, J., & Onck, P. (2013). Fluid propulsion using magnetically-actuated artificial cilia: Experiments and simulations . Rsc Advances , 3(31), 12735-12742. DOI: 10.1039/c3ra42068j
- Khaderi, S. N., & Onck, P. R. (2012). Fluid-structure interaction of three-dimensional magnetic artificial cilia . Journal of Fluid Mechanics , 708, 303-328. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2012.306
- Khaderi, S. N., den Toonder, J. M. J., & Onck, P. R. (2012). Magnetically Actuated Artificial Cilia: The Effect of Fluid Inertia . Langmuir , 28(20), 7921-7937. DOI: 10.1021/la300169f
- Khaderi, S. N., den Toonder, J. M. J., & Onck, P. R. (2012). Fluid flow due to collective non-reciprocal motion of symmetrically-beating artificial cilia . Biomicrofluidics , 6(1), 014106-1-014106-14. . DOI: 10.1063/1.3676068
- Khaderi, S. N., den Toonder, J. M. J., & Onck, P. R. (2011). Microfluidic propulsion by the metachronal beating of magnetic artificial cilia: A numerical analysis . Journal of Fluid Mechanics , 688(1), 44-65. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2011.355
- Namdeo, S., Khaderi, S. N., den Toonder, J. M. J., Onck, P. R., Colin, S. (Ed.), & Morini, G. L. (Ed.) (2011). Swimming direction reversal of flagella through ciliary motion of mastigonemes . Biomicrofluidics , 5(3), 034108-1-034108-15. . DOI: 10.1063/1.3608240
- Khaderi, S. N., Craus, C. B., Hussong, J., Schorr, N., Belardi, J., Westerweel, J. , ... Onck, P. R. (2011). Magnetically-actuated artificial cilia for microfluidic propulsion . Lab on a Chip , 11(12), 2002-2010. DOI: 10.1039/c0lc00411a
- Khaderi, S. N., Baltussen, M. G. H. M., Anderson, P. D., den Toonder, J. M. J., & Onck, P. R. (2010). Breaking of symmetry in microfluidic propulsion driven by artificial cilia . Physical Review E , 82(2), 027302-1-027302-4. . DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.027302
- Khaderi, S. N., Baltussen, M. G. H. M., Anderson, P. D., Ioan, D., den Toonder, J. M. J., & Onck, P. R.(2009). Nature-inspired microfluidic propulsion using magnetic actuation . Physical Review E , 79(4), 046304-1-046304-4. . DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.79.046304
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