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Article in Nature communications: Physical and virtual carbon metabolism of global cities | Klaus Hubacek

10 January 2020

Authors: Shaoqing Chen, Bin Chen, Kuishuang Feng, Zhu Liu, Neil Fromer, Xianchun Tan, Ahmed Alsaedi, Tasawar Hayat, Helga Weisz, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber & Klaus Hubacek.

Journal: Nature Communications, volume 11, Article number: 182 (2020)


Urban activities have profound and lasting effects on the global carbon balance. Here we develop a consistent metabolic approach that combines two complementary carbon accounts, the physical carbon balance and the fossil fuel-derived gaseous carbon footprint, to track carbon coming into, being added to urban stocks, and eventually leaving the city. We find that over 88% of the physical carbon in 16 global cities is imported from outside their urban boundaries, and this outsourcing of carbon is notably amplified by virtual emissions from upstream activities that contribute 33–68% to their total carbon inflows. While 13–33% of the carbon appropriated by cities is immediately combusted and released as CO2, between 8 and 24% is stored in durable household goods or becomes part of other urban stocks. Inventorying carbon consumed and stored for urban metabolism should be given more credit for the role it can play in stabilizing future global climate.

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Read full article in nature communications

Last modified:01 August 2022 2.15 p.m.

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