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Self-organization in social systems

Hemelrijk group - Publications


Mills, R., Taylor, G. K., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2019). Sexual size dimorphism, prey morphology and catch success in relation to flight mechanics in the peregrine falcon: A simulation study. Journal of Avian Biology, 50(3), [01979].
Storms, R. F., Carere, C., Zoratto, F., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2019). Complex patterns of collective escape in starling flocks under predation. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 73(1), [10].


Tan, A. W. Y., Hemelrijk, C. K., Malaivijitnond, S., & Gumert, M. D. (2018). Young macaques (Macaca fascicularis) preferentially bias attention towards closer, older, and better tool users. Animal Cognition, 21(4), 551-563.
Lecheval, V., Jiang, L., Tichit, P., Sire, C., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Theraulaz, G. (2018). Social conformity and propagation of information in collective U-turns of fish schools. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 285(1877), [20180251].
Mills, R., Hildenbrandt, H., Taylor, G. K., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2018). Physics-based simulations of aerial attacks by peregrine falcons reveal that stooping at high speed maximizes catch success against agile prey. PLoS Computational Biology, 14(4), [1006044].
Costanzo, A., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2018). Spontaneous emergence of milling (vortex state) in a Vicsek-like model. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 51(13), [134004].
Herrera-Alsina, L., Pigot, A. L., Hildenbrandt, H., & Etienne, R. S. (2018). The influence of ecological and geographic limits on the evolution of species distributions and diversity. Evolution, 72(10), 1978-1991.
Piou, C., Berger, U., Hildenbrandt, H., & Feller, I. C. (2018). Testing the intermediate disturbance hypothesis in species-poor systems: A simulation experiment for mangrove forests. Journal of Vegetation Science, 19(3), 417 - 424.


Stroebe, K., Nijstad, B. A., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2017). Female dominance in human groups: Effects of sex ratio and conflict level. Social psychological and personality science, 8(2), 209-218.
Kalcher-Sommersguter, E., Preuschoft, S., Franz-Schaider, C., Hemelrijk, C. K., Crailsheim, K., & Massen, J. J. M. (2016). Corrigendum: Early maternal loss affects social integration of chimpanzees throughout their lifetime. Scientific Reports, 6, [24842].
Amininasab, S. M., Kingma, S. A., Birker, M., Hildenbrandt, H., & Komdeur, J. (2016). The effect of ambient temperature, habitat quality and individual age on incubation behaviour and incubation feeding in a socially monogamous songbird. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 70(9), 1591-1600.


Hogan, B. G., Hildenbrandt, H., Scott-Samuel, N. E., Cuthill, I. C., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2017). The confusion effect when attacking simulated three-dimensional starling flocks. Royal Society Open Science, 4(1), [160564].
Jager, W., Verbrugge, R., Flache, A., de Roo, G., Hoogduin, L., & Hemelrijk, C. (Eds.) (2017). Advances in Social Simulation 2015. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Vol. 528). Springer International Publishing.
Hemelrijk, C. K., Kappeler, P. M., & Puga-Gonzalez, I. (2017). The self-organization of social complexity in group-living animals: Lessons from the DomWorld model. In M. Naguib, J. Podos, LW. Simmons, L. Barrett, SD. Healy, & M. Zuk (Eds.), Advances in the Study of Behavior (pp. 361-405). (Advances in the Study of Behavior; Vol. 49). Academic Press.
Amininasab, S. M., Birker, M., Kingma, S. A., Hildenbrandt, H., & Komdeur, J. (2017). The effect of male incubation feeding on female nest attendance and reproductive performance in a socially monogamous bird. Journal of Ornithology, 158(3), 687-696.


Puga-Gonzalez, I., Cooper, M. A., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2016). “Targeting or supporting, what drives patterns of aggressive intervention in fights?”. American Journal of Primatology, 78(2), 247-255.
Hemelrijk, C. (Photographer). (2015). Waves of terror in Starling flocks: Specific reactions of Starling flocks to predator attacks. Web publication/site, British Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved from
Demsar, J., Hemelrijk, C. K., Hildenbrandt, H., & Bajec, I. L. (2015). Simulating predator attacks on schools: Evolving composite tactics. Ecological Modelling, 304, 22-33.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2015). Diffusion and topological neighbours in flocks of starlings: relating a model to empirical data. PLoS ONE, 10(5), [e0126913].
Hemelrijk, C. K., van Zuidam, L., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2015). What underlies waves of agitation in starling flocks. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 69(5), 755-764.
Puga-Gonzalez, I., Hoscheid, A., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2015). Friendship, reciprocation, and interchange in an individual-based model. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 69(3), 383-394.
van der Post, D. J., Verbrugge, R., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2015). The evolution of different forms of sociality: Behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback. PLoS ONE, 10(1), [e0117027].
Hemelrijk, C., Puga-Gonzalez, I., & Steinhauser, J. (2015). Cooperation, coalition, alliances. In W. Henke, & I. Tattersall (Eds.), Handbook of Paleoanthropology: Primate Evolution and Human Origins (2 ed., Vol. II, pp. 1693). Heidelberg: Springer.
Kalcher-Sommersguter, E., Preuschoft, S., Franz-Schaider, C., Hemelrijk, C. K., Crailsheim, K., & Massen, J. J. M. (2015). Early maternal loss affects social integration of chimpanzees throughout their lifetime. Scientific Reports, 5, [16439].


Hemelrijk, C. K., Reid, D. A. P., Hildenbrandt, H., & Padding, J. T. (2015). The increased efficiency of fish swimming in a school. Fish and Fisheries, 16(3), 511-521.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2015). Scale-free correlations, influential neighbours and speed control in flocks of birds. Journal of Statistical Physics, 158(3), 563-578.
Puga-Gonzalez, I., Butovskaya, M., Thierry, B., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2014). Empathy versus parsimony in understanding post-conflict affiliation in monkeys: model and empirical data. PLoS ONE, 9(3), [e91262].
van der Vaart, E., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2014). 'Theory of mind' in animals: ways to make progress. Synthese, 191(3), 335-354.


van Weerden, J. F., Reid, D. A. P., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2014). A meta-analysis of steady undulatory swimming. Fish and Fisheries, 15(3), 397-409.
Krueger, K., Flauger, B., Farmer, K., & Hemelrijk, C. (2014). Movement initiation in groups of feral horses. Behavioural Processes, 103, 91-101.
van der Post, D. J., de Weerd, H., Verbrugge, R., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2013). A novel mechanism for a survival advantage of vigilant individuals in groups. American Naturalist, 182(5), 682-688.
Schroeder, J., Dugdale, H. L., Radersma, R., Hinsch, M., Buehler, D. M., Saul, J., ... Horrocks, N. (2013). Fewer invited talks by women in evolutionary biology symposia. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 26(9), 2063-2069.
Hemelrijk, C. (2013). Simulating complexity of animal social behaviour. In B. Edmonds, & R. Meyer (Eds.), Simulating Social Complexity - a handbook (pp. 581-616). SPRINGER HEIDELBERG.


Hemelrijk, C. K., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2012). Schools of fish and flocks of birds: their shape and internal structure by self-organization. Interface Focus, 2(6), 726-737.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Puga-Gonzalez, I. (2012). An Individual-Oriented Model on the Emergence of Support in Fights, Its Reciprocation and Exchange. PLoS ONE, 7(5), [e37271].
Kunz, H., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2012). Simulations of the social organization of large schools of fish whose perception is obstructed. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 138(3-4), 142-151.
van der Vaart, E., Hemelrijk, C., & Verbrugge, R. (2012). Corvid re-chaching without 'Theory of Mind': A model. PLoS ONE, 7, [e32904].
Reid, D. A. P., Hildenbrandt, H., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Padding, J. T. (2012). Fluid dynamics of moving fish in a two-dimensional multiparticle collision dynamics model. Physical Review E, 85(2), [021901].


Hemelrijk, C. (2011). Simple reactions to nearby neighbours and complex social behaviour in primates. In R. Menzel, & J. Fischer (Eds.), Animal Thinking: Contemporary Issues in Comparative Cognition (Vol. 8, pp. 223-238). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hemelrijk, C., Jensen, K., Silk, J. B., Andrews, K., Bshary, R., & Cheney, D. L. (2011). Social knowledge. In R. Menzel, & J. Fischer (Eds.), Animal Thinking: Contemporary Issues in Comparative Cognition (Vol. 8, pp. 267-292). Cambridge, MA.
Procaccini, A., Orlandi, A., Cavagna, A., Giardina, I., Zoratto, F., Santucci, D., ... Carere, C. (2011). Propagating waves in starling, Sturnus vulgaris, flocks under predation. Animal Behavior, 82(4), 759-765.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2011). Some causes of the variable shape of flocks of birds. PLoS ONE, 6(8), [22479].
van der Vaart, E., Verbrugge, R., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2011). Corvid caching: insights from a cognitive model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 37(3), 330-340.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Bolhuis, J. J. (2011). A minimalist approach to comparative psychology. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(5), 185-186.


Hemelrijk, C. K., Hildenbrandt, H., Reinders, J., & Stamhuis, E. J. (2010). Emergence of Oblong School Shape: Models and Empirical Data of Fish. Ethology, 116(11), 1099-1112.
Dijkstra, P., Lindström, J., Metcalfe, N. B., Hemelrijk, C. K., Brendel, M., Seehausen, O., & Groothuis, T. G. G. (2010). Frequency-Dependent Social Dominance in a Color Polymorphic Cichlid Fish. Evolution, 64(10), 2797-2807.
Oosten, J. E., Magnhagen, C., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2010). Boldness by habituation and social interactions: a model. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 64(5), 793-802.
Hildenbrandt, H., Carere, C., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2010). Self-organized aerial displays of thousands of starlings: a model. Behavioral Ecology, 21(6), 1349-1359.


Becher, M. A., Hildenbrandt, H., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Moritz, R. F. A. (2010). Brood temperature, task division and colony survival in honeybees: A model. Ecological Modelling, 221(5), 769-776.
Puga-Gonzalez, I., Hildenbrandt, H., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2009). Emergent Patterns of Social Affiliation in Primates, a Model. PLoS Computational Biology, 5(12), [e1000630].
Reid, D. A. P., Hildenbrandt, H., Padding, J. T., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2009). Flow around fishlike shapes studied using multiparticle collision dynamics. Physical Review E, 79(4), [046313].
van der Vaart, E. E., Hemelrijk, C., & Verbrugge, L. (2009). Learning where (not) to cache: A cognitive model for corvids. In N. A. Taatgen, & R. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2420-2425). Austin: Cognitive Science Society.
van der Vaart, E. E., Verbrugge, L., & Hemelrijk, C. (2009). Memory Effects in the Clark's nutcracker: A cognitive model for corvids. In A. Howes, D. Peebles, & R. Cooper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (pp. 412-417). Manchester.
Veerman, A. J., Kamps, W. A., van den Berg, H., van den Berg, E., Bokkerink, J. P. M., Bruin, M. C. A., ... Dutch Childhood Oncology Grp (2009). Dexamethasone-based therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of the prospective Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) protocol ALL-9 (1997-2004). Lancet Oncology, 10(10), 957-966.


Dijkstra, P., Hemelrijk, C., Seehausen, O., & Groothuis, T. G. G. (2009). Color polymorphism and intrasexual competition in assemblages of cichlid fish. Behavioral Ecology, 20(1), 138-144.
Hemelrijk, C. K., Wantia, J., & Isler, K. (2008). Female dominance over males in primates: Self-organisation and sexual dimorphism. PLoS ONE, 3(7), [2678].
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2008). Self‐Organized Shape and Frontal Density of Fish Schools. Ethology, 114(3), 245-254.
Berger, U., Rivera-Monroy, V. H., Doyle, T. W., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Duke, N. C., Fontalvo-Herazo, M. L., ... Twilley, R. R. (2008). Advances and limitations of individual-based models to analyze and predict dynamics of mangrove forests: A review. Aquatic Botany, 89(2), 260-274.


Hemelrijk, C. K., & Steinhauser, J. (2007). Cooperation, coalition and alliances. In W. Henke, & I. Tattersal (Eds.), Handbook of Paleoanthropology: Primate Evolution and Human Origins (1 ed., Vol. II, pp. 1321 - 1346). Berlin: Springer.
Piou, C., Berger, U., Hildenbrandt, H., Grimm, V., Diele, K., & D'Lima, C. (2007). Simulating cryptic movements of a mangrove crab: Recovery phenomena after small scale fishery. Ecological Modelling, 205(1-2), 110 - 122.


Kunz, H., Züblin, T., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2006). On prey grouping an predator confusion in artificial fish schools. In Proceedings of Tenth International Conference on Artificial Life (pp. 365 - 371). Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Berger, U., Adams, M., Grimm, V., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2006). Modelling secondary succession of neotropical mangroves: Causes and consequences of growth reduction in pioneer species. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 7(4), 243 - 252.
Hildenbrandt, H., & Grimm, V. (2006). How to detect and visualize extinction thresholds for structured PVA models. Ecological Modelling, 191(3-4), 545 - 550.


Hemelrijk, C. K., Wantia, J., & Gygax, L. (2005). The construction of dominance order: comparing performance of five methods using an individual-based model. Behaviour, 142, 1037-1058.
Martin, RD., Genoud, M., & Hemelrijk, CK. (2005). Problems of allometric scaling analysis: Examples from mammalian reproductive biology. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208(9), 1731-1747.
Cooper, M. A., Bernstein, I. S., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2005). Reconciliation and relationship quality in Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). American Journal of Primatology, 65(3), 269-282.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2005). Self-organisation and Evolution of Social Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Corporael, L., Wilson, D. S., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Sheldon, K. M. (2005). Small groups from an evolutionary perspective. In M. S. Poole, & A. B. Hollinghead (Eds.), Theories of Small Groups (pp. 369-396). SAGE Publications Inc..


Hemelrijk, C. K., & Wantia, J. (2005). Individual variation by self-organisation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29(1), 125-136.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Kunz, H. (2005). Density distribution and size sorting in fish schools: An individual-based model. Behavioral Ecology, 16(1), 178-187.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Gygax, L. (2004). Dominance style, differences between the sexes and species: An agent-based model. Interaction Studies, 5, 131-146.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2004). The use of artificial-life models for the study of social organization. In B. Thierry, M. Singh, & W. Kaumanns (Eds.), Macaque Societies: A Model for the Study of Social Organization (pp. 295 - 313). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Berger, U., Hildenbrandt, H., & Grimm, V. (2004). Age-related decline in forest production: modelling the effects of growth limitation, neighbourhood competition and self-thinning. Journal of Ecology, 92(5), 846 - 853.
Bauer, S., Wyszomirski, T., Berger, U., Hildenbrandt, H., & Grimm, V. (2004). Asymmetric competition as a natural outcome of neighbour interactions among plants: results from the field-of-neighbourhood modelling approach. Plant ecology, 170(1), 135 - 145.


Kunz, H., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2003). Artificial fish schools: Collective effects of school size, body size, and body form. Artificial Life, 9(3), 237-253.
Hemelrijk, C., Wantia, J., & Dätwyler, M. (2003). Female Co-Dominance in a Virtual World: Ecological, Cognitive, Social and Sexual Causes. Behaviour, 140, 1247-1273.
Waeber, P. O., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2003). Female dominance and social structure in Alaotran gentle lemurs. Behaviour, 140(10), 1235-1246.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Thierry, B. (2003). Models and empirical studies of causes and consequences of dominance hierarchies - Introduction. (140 ed.) Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff/Brill.
Berger, U., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2003). The strength of competition among individual trees and the biomass-density trajectories of the cohort. Plant ecology, 167(1), 89 - 96.


Hemelrijk, C. K. (2002). Understanding social behaviour with the help of complexity science (Invited article). Ethology, 108(8), 655-671.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2002). Despotic societies, sexual attraction and the emergence of male 'tolerance': An agent-based model. Behaviour, 139, 729-747.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2002). Self-organization and natural selection in the evolution of complex despotic societies. Biological Bulletin, 202(3), 283-288.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2002). Self-organizing properties of primate social behavior: A hypothesis for intersexual rank overlap in chimpanzees and bonobos. In C. Soligo, G. Anzenberger, & R. D. Martin (Eds.), Primatology and Anthropology: Into the Third Millennium (pp. 91 - 94). (Evolutionary Anthropology; No. 11 (Supplement 1)). New York: Wiley.
Bauer, S., Berger, U., Hildenbrandt, H., & Grimm, V. (2002). Cyclic dynamics in simulated plant populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 269(1508), 2443 - 2450.
Kamps, WA., Bokkerink, JPM., Hakvoort-Cammel, FGAJ., Veerman, AJP., Weening, RS., van Wering, ER., ... van der Does-van den Berg, A. (2002). BFM-oriented treatment for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation and treatment reduction for standard risk patients: results of DCLSG protocol ALL-8 (1991-1996). Leukemia, 16(6), 1099-1111.


Hemelrijk, C. K. (2001). Sexual attraction and inter-sexual dominance among virtual agents. In S. Moss, & P. Davidsson (Eds.), Multi Agent Based Simulation (Vol. 1979, pp. 167 - 180). Berlin: Springer.
Szczepanski, T., Willemse, MJ., van Wering, ER., van Weerden, J. F., Kamps, WA., & van Dongen, JJM. (2001). Precursor-B-ALL with D-H-J(H) gene rearrangements have an immature immunogenotype with a high frequency of oligoclonality and hyperdiploidy of chromosome 14. Leukemia, 15(9), 1415-1423.


Gössmann, C., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Huber, R. (2000). The formation and maintenance of crayfish hierarchies: behavioral and self-structuring properties. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 48(6), 418 - 428.
Krause, J., Hoare, D., Krause, S., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Rubenstein, D. I. (2000). Leadership in fish shoals. Fish and Fisheries, 1, 82 - 89.
Meier, C., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Martin, R. D. (2000). Paternity determination, genetic characterization, and social correlates in a captive group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Primates, 41, 175 - 183.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2000). Self-reinforcing dominance interactions between virtual males and females. Hypothesis generation for primate studies. Adaptive Behavior, 8, 13-26.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2000). Towards the integration of social dominance and spatial structure. Animal Behaviour, 59, 1035-1048.
Berger, U., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2000). A new approach to spatially explicit modelling of forest dynamics: spacing, ageing and neighbourhood competition of mangrove trees. Ecological Modelling, 132(3), 287 - 302.
Kamps, WA., Veerman, AJP., van Wering, ER., van Weerden, JF., Slater, R., & van der Does-van den Berg, A. (2000). Long-term follow-up of Dutch Childhood Leukemia Study Group (DCLSG) protocols for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 1984-1991. Leukemia, 14(12), 2240-2246.


Hemelrijk, C. K. (1999). An individual-orientated model of the emergence of despotic and egalitarian societies. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 266, 361 - 369.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (1999). Effects of cohesiveness on inter-sexual dominance relationships and spatial structure among group-living virtual entities. In D. Floreano, J-D. Nicoud, & F. Mondada (Eds.), Advances in Artificial Life (Vol. 1674, pp. 524 - 534). Berlin: Springer.
Hemelrijk, C. K., Meier, C., & Martin, R. D. (1999). 'Friendship' for fitness in chimpanzees? Animal Behaviour, 58, 1223 - 1229.
Kamps, WA., Bokkerink, JPM., Hahlen, K., Hermans, J., Riehm, H., Gadner, H., ... van der Does-van den Berg, A. (1999). Intensive treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia according to ALL-BFM-86 without cranial radiotherapy: Results of Dutch Childhood Leukemia Study Group protocol ALL-7 (1988-1991). Blood, 94(4), 1226-1236.


Hemelrijk, C. K., & Luteijn, M. (1998). Philopatry, male presence and grooming reciprocation among female primates: a comparative perspective. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 42(3), 207 - 215.
Does-Van den Berg, AV., Veerman, AJP., Van Wering, ER., De Vries, JA., De Waal, FC., Van Zanen, GE., ... Kamps, WA. (1998). Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the Netherlands - Randomized studies and nationwide treatment results from 1972 to 1995. International journal of pediatric hematology/oncology, 5(2-4), 125-139.


Kummer, H., Anzenberer, G., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (1996). Hiding and perspective taking in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 110, 97 - 102.


Hemelrijk, C. K. (1994). Support for being groomed in long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis. Animal Behaviour, 48, 479 - 481.


Hemelrijk, C. K., Van Laere, G. J., & Van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1992). Sexual exchange relationships in captive chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 30, 269-275.


Hemelrijk, C. K. (1991). Interchange of 'altruistic' acts as an epiphenomenon. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 153, 137 - 139.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Ek, A. (1991). Reciprocity and interchange of grooming and 'support' in captive chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 41, 923 - 935.
Hemelrijk, C. K., Klomberg, T. J. M., Nooitgedagt, J. H., & Van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1991). Side-directed behavior and recruitment of support in captive chimpanzees. Behaviour, 118, 89 - 102.


Hemelrijk, C. K. (1990). A matrix partial correlation test used in investigations of reciprocity and other social interaction patterns at group level. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 143, 405 - 420.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (1990). Models of, and tests for, reciprocity, unidirectionality and other social interaction patterns at a group level. Animal Behaviour, 39, 1013 - 1029.


Hemelrijk, C. K., & De Kogel, C. H. (1989). What chimpanzee mothers have more sociable infants? Behaviour, 111, 305 - 318.
Last modified:04 September 2017 3.13 p.m.