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How do religions come into being? How do they affect people and societies? What role does religion play in various cultures and conflicts?

Most cultures are profoundly shaped by religious phenomena. Of the seven billion people on Earth, six billion call themselves religious. Religion does not occur in isolation; it connects with people's daily behaviour, economically, politically, socially, and psychologically. Wherever there are people, there is religion, always and everywhere. Religion is one of the forces driving humankind, which is why knowledge of religion is so important. The central question you will learn to ask yourselve is not to what extent religions are 'true', but how religion affects people's lives and what people do with it. The interaction between religion, culture, and society is the main focus of this bachelor's programme.

In this Bachelor's programme, you will:
› deepen your knowledge of various aspects of the major religions in the world (Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity and Judaism);
› use different perspectives to analyse religious expressions – texts, rituals and visual art – and place them in their cultural context;
› gain knowledge on concepts underpinning and shaping the relationship between religion and politics from ancient times through to the present day.

Hoe ontstaan religies? Welk effect hebben ze op mensen en samenlevingen? Welke rol speelt religie in verschillende culturen en conflicten? Is religie zelf een cultureel verschijnsel?

Religie is een alomtegenwoordig en alledaags verschijnsel in praktisch alle culturen. Van de zeven miljard mensen op aarde noemt zes miljard zich religieus. Wereldwijd bestaan er maar liefst 10.000 religieuze stromingen. Religie staat niet op zichzelf, maar houdt verband met het dagelijkse gedrag van mensen: economisch, politiek, psychologisch en sociaal. Waar mensen zijn, is religie, in alle tijden en waar ook ter wereld. Religie is een van de grootste drijvende krachten van de mensheid en daarom is kennis over religie ontzettend belangrijk.

De religiewetenschap bestudeert religie als verschijnsel. De centrale vraag is niet in hoeverre religies 'waar' zijn, maar hoe religie het leven van mensen beïnvloedt en wat mensen er mee doen. In de Groningse bachelor bestudeer je de grote wereldreligies (islam, boeddhisme, hindoeïsme, christendom en jodendom). Je kijkt naar de ontstaansgeschiedenis van deze religies en naar de hedendaagse verschijningsvormen. Vanuit verschillende invalshoeken - zoals psychologie, sociologie, antropologie en filosofie - leer je deze religies te onderzoeken. De samenhang tussen religie, cultuur en samenleving staat bij ons centraal.

You are fascinated by religion, other cultures and societies, and you wish to better understand the world you live in. You want to know what impact various religions have on society and people and you are open to different worldviews. You enjoy reading and you are interested in history, sociology, psychology, philosophy, politics and cultural anthropology. Most of all, you want to know what drives people!

Deze studie is iets voor jou als je een fascinatie hebt voor religie, andere culturen en samenlevingen en de wereld om je heen beter wilt begrijpen. Je wilt weten welke invloed diverse godsdiensten hebben op de maatschappij en mensen en je staat open voor verschillende levensbeschouwingen. Je houdt van lezen en vindt geschiedenis, sociologie, psychologie, filosofie, politiek en culturele antropologie interessant. Bovenal wil je weten wat mensen beweegt!

More about this programme
  • Programme movie

    What martyr videos tell us

    Dr Pieter Nanninga about his research on videos by muslim terrorists using suicide attacks

    Programme movie
  • Programme movie

    Learned a lot about the position of women in India

    Religious Studies student Nienke de Graaf tells about her experiences in India.

    Programme movie
  • Testimonial of Prof. dr. Marjo Buitelaar

    You learn to look past the clichés about Muslims

    I teach the course units 'Anthropology of Religion' and 'Islam'. The combination is a great way to learn about the link between the 'repertoire' of symbols, rituals and stories available to Islam as a historical tradition, and the divergent ways that individual Muslims and Muslim groups make use of that rich source to define guidelines for a good life, and derive comfort, strength and inspiration.

    When the question of how people make use of the sources available to Islam to define their own lives and their society is made central, you learn to recognize that religion is not a blueprint for life; there is always an interplay between religious regulations and daily practice. This throws light on how changeable religious traditions are. 

    Students learn to recognize this interplay and to chart it. In concrete terms, you learn how a religious tradition is given shape in everyday practice and how you can use anthropological themes, theories and approaches to study religion. You learn to recognize the global developments in a specific culture or region. The course unit 'Anthropology of Muslim Societies' thus integrates the various topics and approaches taught in other course units in the programme. 

    The course unit is extremely socially relevant: political Islam is playing a major role in contemporary national and international relations and world order.  The public debate sometimes reveals a very static view of Islam – people often think that it is a religion that has not changed since the seventh century and that that is what still determines all the thoughts and actions of Muslims. You will learn that people are not passive 'carriers' of a religion or culture. They are active actors who make use of different sources, which include religion, to define their own lives and to try to exert influence on their environment. If we produce one-sided explanations of the conflicts in which certain categories of Muslims are currently involved as being the result of Islam as a static, life-dominating religion, then you do not gain a proper view of the complexity of social, economic and political factors that contribute to people feeling hard done-by, insecure or who want to acquire power.

    A greater knowledge of the practice of Islam in the daily lives of 'ordinary' Muslims will teach you to see that the dominant view of Islam as an aggressive, intolerant and primarily political religion does not dovetail with the meaning of that religion for the vast majority of Muslims. They simply want to live in peace and quiet. For them, Islam primarily has a personal value from which they derive strength, comfort and inspiration for their own wellbeing and that of their loved ones. 

    I will teach you to look past the clichés and to ask analytical questions in order to adequately research social phenomena. 

    – Prof. dr. Marjo Buitelaar
  • Testimonial of Michaël Kruiper

    My students won't let me get away with nonsense

    When I was rounding off my Master's degree programme, my former secondary school offered me a job as a teacher of Religious Education for a couple of hours a week. I started off with eight hours, completed my grade-one teaching qualification in Utrecht, and am currently teaching religion for four days and social studies for one day a week.

    I had a great time as a student. The Faculty owes its charm and strength to its small size, which meant I could fulfil various roles: I worked as an after-hours porter and as a mentor, set up the book committee and organized the introduction camp. In that same vein, I’m currently organizing a trip to Rome for the fifth-year students at our school.

    As a teacher I have to be on the qui vive; my students don’t let me get away with nonsense. Fortunately I had lots of debating practice at university.

    – Michaël Kruiper
  • Testimonial of Janneke Lautenbach

    Religion is often misunderstood

    My choice for Religious Studies in Groningen was inspired by my keen interest in the degree programme's profile: religion and culture. I have always had an interest in other cultures and have always wondered why there are so many different religions. At the start of this degree programme I believed that all religions were essentially the same. I haven't changed my mind since.

    What I like the most is that I can apply the things I learn to my daily life: I now have a better understanding of certain news items, I understand the popularity of magazines such as Happinez and Flow, and I can take part in the debate on secularization.

    This degree programme challenges me to think critically. I used to take the things I read in articles and books for granted. Now, I want to know who the author is, why they wrote the way they did and what their objective was. I no longer automatically believe everything my lecturers tell me. Instead, I try to determine whether what they say is really true.

    A Summer University programme in Nepal gave me a deeper understanding of Hinduism and Buddhism. Observing these religions up close was a wonderful experience, which is why I will return to Nepal next year for a period of six months (or longer) to study Sanskrit.

    A Master’s in teaching in English is also on my to-do list. This degree will allow me to teach religion not only at regular secondary schools, but at international schools as well. Seems sensible, as I can see myself moving abroad sometime in the future.

    Conflicts are often caused by mutual misunderstanding. Religion in particular is often misunderstood. I therefore consider it a challenge to make people, especially adolescents, aware of the important role that religion plays in the world and to give them a clearer understanding of different religions, cultures and societies. I hope my enthusiasm for religions will infect others as well. Religion is not some stuffy thing of the past; I want to help people discover that it is alive and relevant today.

    If I had to choose again, Religious Studies in Groningen would still be my number one choice. Absolutely. It’s not just the degree programme – the Faculty is absolutely superb as well. Everyone knows each other, the Faculty organizes all kinds of fun activities (with both religious and non-religious themes) and its small size ensures high-quality supervision and contact between lecturers and students. I’m looking forward to studying abroad, but I’m really going to miss this place!

    – Janneke Lautenbach
  • Testimonial of Mette Bjerregaard Mortensen

    New understanding of other religions

    I really like being an exchange student here in Groningen! The Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies is a very small faculty, and it has a very familiar feel to it, you get to know people quickly. I think the University of Groningen really makes a special effort to make international students feel welcome, and you never feel left out.

    I chose to study at the Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies in Groningen because of the very specialized Master’s programme here. I have a Bachelor's degree in Religious Studies and Arabic and Islamic Studies, and I wanted to specialize further in Islam, especially the relations between Islam, Christianity and Judaism.

    I particularly liked the comparative elements of my Master’s programme. Not only did it provide me with new knowledge and new understanding of other religions, but also with a larger framework for my studies and the opportunity to approach my specialization from new angles.

    I don’t think that I could have made a better choice than Groningen, and I’m definitely coming back to visit!

    – Mette Bjerregaard Mortensen
  • Testimonial of Brenda Bartelink

    Suddenly, I'm the expert

    After completing my Bachelor's and Master's, I did my PhD research on religion and development cooperation and sexuality, for which I conducted field work in East Africa. This helped me further develop my religious-scientific view on development cooperation.

    Religious Studies is a broad-based degree programme. It is important to choose your (broadening) Minor carefully. I chose Minors from the Faculty of Management and Organization, Development Studies and Philosophy as they are all highly relevant to my work. The training in research skills I
    received during my time in Groningen proved really useful to me. It is not only useful for researchers, but also for Religious Studies experts who want to work for the government or for a civil society organization.

    Being a junior researcher gives you a lot of freedom. I chose to follow a regular working pattern: I worked on my research during the day, and in the evenings I’d either work on my book, teach, give lectures, or serve on boards such as that of the NGG (Dutch Society for Religious Studies). Society expects a lot more from you once you’re working. Compared to when you were a student, you have greater responsibilities and are suddenly considered an expert.

    After my PhD, I worked as coordinator at the Religion and Development Knowledge Centre of the Oikos Foundation, where I helped in the joint training of development workers, policy makers and academics in how religion relates to conflicts, disasters, gender, health and human rights.

    I recently returned to the University of Groningen, this time as a postdoc for Kim Knibbe’s research project on religion, secularism, sexuality and health of the African community in the Netherlands.

    – Brenda Bartelink
  • Testimonial of Nienke de Graaf

    A highly challenging topic

    After my final school exams, I took a year off to travel around India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Hinduism, Islam and Buddhism play an important role in these countries. I am primarily interested in how religious beliefs in these countries relate to phenomena such as Hindu nationalism, development aid, the position of women, and anti-Muslim violence. That's why I decided to study Religious Studies and specialize in South Asia.

    What I like about this programme are the interactive lectures in small groups: we have lots of discussions and we have to give presentations. I really enjoy the diversity and topicality of the content, too.

    I think that the phenomenon of religion is an extremely challenging topic. Throughout the years I have acquired a broad knowledge of the various religions and their relation to such aspects as politics or globalization.

    As a religious studies scholar, I hope to create a bridge between South Asia and the West. There is so much misunderstanding in the West around issues such as women’s rights and nationalism in these countries. This certainly has a negative effect on how India is portrayed in the media and on development policy. After my degree programme, I hope to be able to play an advisory role in these matters, for example in organizations such as Oxfam Novib, or at UN Women.’

    – Nienke de Graaf
  • Testimonial of Charlotte Wassenaar

    Social contribution

    After graduating I was able to immediately follow an internship at a municipality. I was one of three students selected from among two hundred applicants. I was chosen among other things for my background in religious studies; my employer believed that I would bring in an interesting new perspective. The internship consisted of a two-year track during which I switched to a different municipal department every six months.

    After that I worked for this municipality for another eighteen months as a policy officer for the Social Support Act and domestic violence.

    I currently work as a project team member at JSO, a knowledge and expertise centre for the social domain. My job involves a variety of tasks in the social field, from developing quality measures for teenage mothers’ programmes to a stint as interim policy officer for youth affairs at a municipality. What I love about my work is that I operate at the very heart of society and I can make a real contribution.

    – Charlotte Wassenaar
  • Testimonial of Erin Wilson

    to do something that makes a difference

    Understanding the relationship between religion and politics is crucial. In the course Religion and Politics that I teach together with my colleague Joram Tarusarira, we're not just talking about electoral or parliamentary politics, but politics in everyday relationships, in the media, in grass-roots organisations - struggles over power, injustice, who is marginalised and excluded.

    And we're not just focusing on 'religion' in terms of traditions like Christianity and Islam. We're also interested in the whole idea of 'religion' itself - who gets to define what 'religion' actually is, where it begins and ends, what its characteristics are, who its leaders and representatives are. What we show in the course is that how we define what 'religion' is, has a whole range of policy and real world consequences - it determines who can claim the right to freedom of religion or belief and who can't, for example.

    In this course, you are introduced to a range of topics, concepts and skills relevant for exploring the relationships between 'religion' and 'politics'. You will get a broad historical overview of thinkers who have explored this topic, ranging from ancient times through to the contemporary world, so you can identify how things have changed but also how they have stayed the same. You will gain knowledge of foundational thinkers, as well as new developments. Along, you will develop the critical analysis skills to identify problems and inconsistencies in public discourses on religion and politics, and the communication skills to effectively explain these inconsistencies to a diverse audience. These are crucial skills to have if you want to go on and work in policy or the NGO sector, for example.                                                                                                  

    I am personally motivated to teach about these topics because I want to do 'something' that makes a difference in people's lives, that helps to address inequalities and injustices in global politics and society. For me, in our contemporary world, there is so much misunderstanding and misrepresentation of religion in general, and Islam in particular. This leads to injustices and inequalities that affect people on a daily basis - whether that is Muslim families always being singled out for extra security checks at the airport, or media commentators and politicians arguing that we should stop accepting refugees because they may be terrorists, or indigenous people in the US being unable to claim protection for their sacred sites because their traditional rituals are defined by courts as 'culture' rather than as 'religion' – I could go on. Yet so often we see discussions about 'religion' and 'politics' as abstract things that are not relevant to the 'real world'. I want you to realize that these things do matter and that utilizing more sensitive nuanced understandings of religion can help to address these inconsistencies, inequalities and injustices, in both big and small ways.

    – Erin Wilson
Facts & Figures
BA in Religious Studies
Croho code
Course type
Language of instruction
English (100%), Dutch (50%)
36 months (180 ECTS)
Programme form
Theology and Religious Studies
Studie in CijfersStudie in CijfersBeste Studies Elsevier 2016