Maddison Project Database 2018
The Maddison Project Database provides information on comparative economic growth and income levels over the very long run. The 2018 version of this database covers 169 countries and the period up to 2016. For access to the data, choose either format:
The Maddison Project Database has been thoroughly revised and updated, see the documentation paper for details. For new and experienced users alike, we strongly recommend the user guide in this paper to better understand the two real GDP per capita series and how they can best be used.
Attribution requirement - When using these data (for whatever purpose), please make the following reference:
- Maddison Project Database, version 2018. Bolt, Jutta, Robert Inklaar, Herman de Jong and Jan Luiten van Zanden (2018), “Rebasing ‘Maddison’: new income comparisons and the shape of long-run economic development”, Maddison Project Working paper 10
- For the references to the original research on individual countries, see Appendix A of Bolt et al. (2018).
For questions not covered in the documentation, please contact maddison rug.nl
License and funding
Maddison Project Database, version 2018 by Jutta Bolt, Robert Inklaar, Herman de Jong and Jan Luiten van Zanden is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License .
|Rebasing ‘Maddison’: new income comparisons and the shape of long-run economic development||
Paper introducing new concepts and new results of the Maddison Project Database, version 2018
|Real GDP per capita and population for regions and the world from 1870 onwards.|
Real GDP per capita in 1990 dollars, using the most current time series on growth of GDP per capita and the Maddison benchmark for 1990.
|Last modified:||23 November 2021 10.38 a.m.|