PWT version 9.1 is a database with information on relative levels of income, output, input and productivity, covering 182 countries between 1950 and 2017. Access to the data is provided below:
If you are new to PWT, please consult the User Guide to PWT 9.1 for further information and a guide to the available documentation. This Vox column is a good starting point as well. If you are an experienced PWT user, please consult What is new in PWT 9.1.
To stay informed about new releases, follow us on Twitter @PennWorldTable.
Attribution requirement - When using these data (for whatever purpose), please make the following reference:
- Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt
For questions not covered in the documentation, please contact email@example.com.
License and funding
Penn World Table 9.1 by Robert C. Feenstra, Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License . This research received support through grants from the National Science Foundation, the Sloan Foundation and the Transatlantic Platform’s Digging into Data program.
Selective data access
|Query||Variable Name and Use||Example|
|RGDPNA||Real GDP using national-accounts growth rates, for studies comparing (output-based) growth rates across countries||Dependent variable in (cross-country) growth regressions|
|CGDPe||Expenditure-side real GDP at current PPPs, to compare relative living standards across countries at a single point in time||Initial level in growth regressions requiring relative living standards|
|CGDPo||Output-side real GDP at current PPPs, to compare relative productive capacity across countries at a single point in time||Initial level in growth regressions requiring productive capacity or productivity|
|RGDPe||Expenditure-side real GDP at chained PPPs, to compare relative living standards across countries and over time||Living standards of China today compared to the US at some point in the past|
|RGDPo||Output-side real GDP at chained PPPs, to compare relative productive capacity across countries and over time||Productive capacity of China today compared to the US at some point in the past|
|DA||Development accounting, the sources of differences in living standards at a point in time||Is the US richer because of more inputs, higher productivity, or both?|
|GA||Growth accounting, the sources of economic growth over time||Analysis of the sources of economic growth over time|
Notes: Real GDP variables are in (millions) of US dollars, not in per-capita terms. A population variable (acronym pop), which can be used to convert GDP into per-capita terms, is included in the relevant queries.
Additional data and programs
|NA data (Stata, Excel)||The National Accounts data in current and constant national prices and exchange rate and population data|
|Trade detail||Exports and imports by Broad Economic Category, including shares in CGDPo and price levels|
|Labor detail||Details on the sources and methods for compiling employment, educational attainment and labor share data|
|Capital detail||Investment, capital stock and capital consumption data by assets.|
|Program package (coming soon)||The Stata data files and do-files necessary to replicate and customize PWT|
|Expenditure share correlations||Bilateral correlations between expenditure (budget) shares in the different global benchmark years|
|NA vintages (2009, 2010, 2011)||Older vintages of NA data with data up to the indicated year|
|ICP benchmark data (1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1996)||PPPs and expenditure at the most detailed level for publicly available benchmark years|
|Last modified:||30 April 2019 12.00 p.m.|