PWT version 10.0 is a database with information on relative levels of income, output, input and productivity, covering 183 countries between 1950 and 2019. For questions not covered in the documentation, please contact pwt rug.nl. Access to the data is provided below:
On June 18, 2021 we updated PWT 10.0. Please consult the change log for an overview of the changes.
If you are new to PWT, please consult the User Guide to PWT 10.0 for further information and a guide to the available documentation. This Vox column is a good starting point as well. If you are an experienced PWT user, please consult What is new in PWT 10.0.
To stay informed about new releases, follow us on Twitter @PennWorldTable.
Attribution requirement - When using these data (for whatever purpose), please make the following reference:
- Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt
License and funding
Penn World Table 10.0 by Robert C. Feenstra, Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License . This research received support through grants from the National Science Foundation, the Sloan Foundation and the Transatlantic Platform’s Digging into Data program.
Selective data access
|Query||Variable Name and Use||Example|
|RGDPNA||Real GDP using national-accounts growth rates, for studies comparing (output-based) growth rates across countries||Dependent variable in (cross-country) growth regressions|
|CGDPe||Expenditure-side real GDP at current PPPs, to compare relative living standards across countries at a single point in time||Initial level in growth regressions requiring relative living standards|
|CGDPo||Output-side real GDP at current PPPs, to compare relative productive capacity across countries at a single point in time||Initial level in growth regressions requiring productive capacity or productivity|
|RGDPe||Expenditure-side real GDP at chained PPPs, to compare relative living standards across countries and over time||Living standards of China today compared to the US at some point in the past|
|RGDPo||Output-side real GDP at chained PPPs, to compare relative productive capacity across countries and over time||Productive capacity of China today compared to the US at some point in the past|
|DA||Development accounting, the sources of differences in living standards at a point in time||Is the US richer because of more inputs, higher productivity, or both?|
|GA||Growth accounting, the sources of economic growth over time||Analysis of the sources of economic growth over time|
Notes: Real GDP variables are in (millions) of US dollars, not in per-capita terms. A population variable (acronym pop), which can be used to convert GDP into per-capita terms, is included in the relevant queries.
|The Next Generation of the Penn World Table||
Paper introducing new concepts and new results of PWT, starting with version 8.
|What is New in PWT 10.0||Note that details the changes in PWT 10.0 relative to PWT 9.1.|
|Comparing productivity growth across databases||Note on the comparison of productivity estimations from four databases; PWT 10.0, OECD Productivity Database, Total Economy Database July 2020 release, and the 2019 release of EU KLEMS|
Additional data and programs
|NA data (Excel, Stata)||The National Accounts data in current and constant national prices and exchange rate and population data|
|Trade detail||Exports and imports by Broad Economic Category, including shares in CGDPo and price levels|
|Labor detail||Details on the sources and methods for compiling employment, educational attainment and labor share data|
|Capital detail (Excel, Stata)||Investment, capital stock and capital consumption data by assets.|
|Program package||The Stata data files and do-files necessary to replicate and customize PWT|
|Expenditure share correlations||Bilateral correlations between expenditure (budget) shares in the different global benchmark years|
|NA vintages (2009, 2010, 2011, 2014, 2017)||Older vintages of NA data with data up to the indicated year|
|ICP benchmark data (1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1996)||PPPs and expenditure at the most detailed level for publicly available benchmark years|
|Last modified:||30 November 2021 2.22 p.m.|