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Groningen Growth and Development Centre
Faculty of Economics and Business
GGDC Productivity Penn World Table PWT earlier releases

PWT 9.1

Penn World Table version 9.1

PWT version 9.1 is a database with information on relative levels of income, output, input and productivity, covering 182 countries between 1950 and 2017. Access to the data is provided below:

User information

(DOI: 10.15141/S50T0R)

If you are new to PWT, please consult the User Guide to PWT 9.1 for further information and a guide to the available documentation. This Vox column is a good starting point as well. If you are an experienced PWT user, please consult What is new in PWT 9.1.

To stay informed about new releases, follow us on Twitter @PennWorldTable.

Attribution requirement - When using these data (for whatever purpose), please make the following reference:

  • Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at

For questions not covered in the documentation, please contact


License and funding
Penn World Table 9.1 by Robert C. Feenstra, Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License . This research received support through grants from the National Science Foundation, the Sloan Foundation and the Transatlantic Platform’s Digging into Data program.


Document Content
The Next Generation of the Penn World Table
Paper introducing new concepts and new results of PWT, starting with version 8.
Capital Services in PWT 9.1

The composition of capital and cross-country productivity comparisons

Additional data and programs

File Content
NA data (Stata, Excel) The National Accounts data in current and constant national prices and exchange rate and population data
Trade detail Exports and imports by Broad Economic Category, including shares in CGDPo and price levels
Labor detail Details on the sources and methods for compiling employment, educational attainment and labor share data
Capital detail Investment, capital stock and capital consumption data by assets.
Program package (coming soon) The Stata data files and do-files necessary to replicate and customize PWT
Expenditure share correlations Bilateral correlations between expenditure (budget) shares in the different global benchmark years
NA vintages (2009, 2010, 2011) Older vintages of NA data with data up to the indicated year
ICP benchmark data (1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1996) PPPs and expenditure at the most detailed level for publicly available benchmark years

All information that was previously hosted by the Center for International Comparisons at the University of Pennsylvania, is now available on this site.
Last modified:21 January 2021 4.35 p.m.