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GDDC Databases

Penn World Table

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Version 8.0

(DOI: 10.15141/S5159X)

Welcome to the website of the Penn World Table (PWT)

PWT version 8.0 is a database with information on relative levels of income, output, inputs and productivity, covering 167 countries between 1950 and 2011. On this website, you find access to the data and documentation.

If you are new to PWT, the User Guide is a good starting point as is our recent Vox column. If you have worked with previous PWT versions, be sure check out what is new in this next generation of the PWT and the comparison with PWT7.1. For questions not covered in the documentation, please contact pwt@rug.nl.

When using these data in your research, please make the following reference:

Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2013), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" available for download at www.ggdc.net/pwt

To stay informed about new releases, follow us on Twitter @PennWorldTable.

Data

Selective data access
QueryVariable Name and UseExample
RGDPNA Real GDP using national-accounts growth rates, for studies comparing (output-based) growth rates across countriesDependent variable in (cross-country) growth regressions
CGDPe Expenditure-side real GDP at current PPPs, to compare relative living standards across countries at a single point in timeInitial level in growth regressions requiring relative living standards
CGDPo Output-side real GDP at current PPPs, to compare relative productive capacity across countries at a single point in timeInitial level in growth regressions requiring productive capacity or productivity
RGDPe Expenditure-side real GDP at chained PPPs, to compare relative living standards across countries and over timeLiving standards of China today compared to the US at some point in the past
RGDPo Output-side real GDP at chained PPPs, to compare relative productive capacity across countries and over timeProductive capacity of China today compared to the US at some point in the past
DA Development accounting, the sources of differences in living standards at a point in timeIs the US richer because of more inputs, higher productivity, or both?
GA Growth accounting, the sources of economic growth over timeAnalysis of the sources of economic growth over time

Notes: Real GDP variables are in (millions) of US dollars, not in per-capita terms. A population variable (acronym pop), which can be used to convert GDP into per-capita terms, is included in the relevant queries.

Expert data access

Documentation

DocumentContent
The Next Generation of the Penn World Table Paper introducing new concepts and new results of PWT8.0
PWT8.0 - a user guide Non-technical introduction to PWT8.0
Capital, labor and TFP in PWT8.0 Sources, methods and results of the capital and total factor productivity data in PWT8.0
Comparing PWT8.0 with PWT7.1 and variable correspondence Compares the methodology, results and variable naming with PWT7.1
Technical guide to PWT8.0 Companion to the Stata data and do-files; allows for customization of PWT
National Accounts in PWT8.0 The sources of National Accounts data, variable definitions and accounting rules
Outliers in PWT8.0 The identification of outliers
Exchange rates in PWT 8.0

The explanation of and choice for particular exchange rate series


Additional data and programs

FileContent
NA data (Stata, Excel)The National Accounts data in current and constant national prices and exchange rate and population data
Program package The Stata data files and do-files necessary to replicate and customize PWT
Trade detail Exports and imports by Broad Economic Category, including shares in CGDPo and price levels
Expenditure share correlations Bilateral correlations between expenditure (budget) shares in the different global benchmark years
NA vintages (2009, 2010)Older vintages of NA data with data up to the indicated year
ICP benchmark data (1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1996)PPPs and expenditure at the most detailed level for publicly available benchmark years
Depreciation rates (Stata, Excel)The depreciation of the overall capital stock, by country and year

Additional Resources

The Penn World Table takes a particular approach to comparing output and income levels across countries. For additional information, sources and approaches, the following resources may be helpful:

SourceDescription
ICP PWT is based on the basic data on PPPs from the International Comparison Program (ICP). Version 8.0 includes data from all ICP versions, except for the PPPs from ICP 2011, which were released in April 2014. The ICP 2011 results will be incorporated in the upcoming PWT 9.0 (expected release in 2015); until then the ICP website provides these most recent data.
Maddison PWT covers the period since 1950. The Maddison dataset also covers earlier years, though the dataset covers a smaller number of variables. Its approach to international comparisons over time best corresponds to PWT’s RGDPNA variable.
TCB PWT is not on a regular update schedule, so the most recent year that is covered can be a few years in the past. The Total Economy Database of The Conference Board (TCB) is updated every year with data up until the previous year. The dataset covers a smaller number of variables and its approach to international comparisons over time best corresponds to PWT’s RGDPNA variable.
UQICD PWT takes either the PPPs at a point in time as given (for the CGDPe/RGDPe and CGDPo/RGDPo series) or the constant-price growth rates (RGDPNA). The University of Queensland’s International Comparisons Database (UQICD) is based on econometric estimates of PPPs. These estimates use all available price data, supplemented with non-price data, and also provide information about the uncertainty surrounding a PPP estimate.
CIPR PWT is focused on aggregate/macro-level price comparisons but for various applications, micro-level prices may provide a more helpful frame for analysis. The Centers for International Price Research provide access to data, research and researchers in this area.
This is a selective overview; if you maintain a data source that is also centered around international comparisons of prices or income, contactpwt@rug.nland we will consider adding it to this table.
Last modified:November 11, 2014 09:17