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GDDC Databases

GGDC 10-Sector Database

Version 2014


The GGDC 10-Sector Database provides a long-run internationally comparable dataset on sectoral productivity performance in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Variables covered in the data set are annual series of value added, output deflators, and persons employed for 10 broad sectors. It gives sector detail to the historical macro data in Maddison (2003) from 1950 onwards. It consists of series for 11 countries in Africa, 11 countries in Asia, 2 countries in the Middle East and North Africa, and 9 in Latin-America. For comparison, we have also added data for the US and several European countries.

It should be stressed that the estimates for the total economy are aggregated across sectors and that, because of adjustments at the sector level, the aggregate results are not fully consistent with the national accounts aggregates (see the sources and methods document). Also note that value added data in this database are expressed in local currencies.

When using the GGDC 10-sector database reference should be made to:

M.P. Timmer, G.J. de Vries, and K. de Vries (2014). “Patterns of Structural Change in Developing Countries.” GGDC research memorandum 149 .


Output and labour data This file includes the output and labour data for all countries and variables (Excel file).
Output and labour data This file includes the output and labour data for all countries and variables (Stata data file). See readme.txt for a description of the variables

Country and variable coverage in the GGDC 10-Sector Database

AcronymCountryValue Added in current pricesValue Added in constant pricesEmployment by sector
Sub-Saharan Africa
NGA(alt)Nigeria (2014 GDP revision)2010-20132010-2013 (in 2010 prices)
ZAFSouth Africa1960-20101960-20101960-2010
North Africa
HKGHong Kong1970-20111974-20111974-2011
KORSouth Korea1953-20111953-20111963-2011
Latin America
CRICosta Rica1950-20111950-20111950-2011
North America
USAUnited States of America1947-20101947-20101950-2010
DEWWest Germany1968-19911950-1991 (1991 prices)1950-1991
GBRUnited Kingdom1960-20111949-20091948-2011
NLDThe Netherlands1970-20111949-20091950-2011

Sectors covered

ISIC Rev. 3.1 codeASD sector nameISIC Rev. 3.1 description
AtBAgricultureAgriculture, Hunting and Forestry, Fishing
CMining Mining and Quarrying
DManufacturing Manufacturing
EUtilities Electricity, Gas and Water supply
FConstruction Construction
G+HTrade services Wholesale and Retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods, Hotels and Restaurants
ITransport services Transport, Storage and Communications
J+KBusiness services Financial Intermediation, Renting and Business Activities (excluding owner occupied rents)
L,M,NGovernment services Public Administration and Defense, Education, Health and Social work
O,PPersonal services Other Community, Social and Personal service activities, Activities of Private Households
TOTTotal Economy Total Economy


Sources and Methods This document describes the general sources and methods used to construct the GGDC 10-sector database, as well as the detailed sources and methods by country.

Examples of Research Based on this Database

Fulvio Castellacci, Bart Los, and Gaaitzen J. de Vries (2014) "Sectoral Productivity Convergence: Discovering Convergence Islands in Oceans of non-Convergence” forthcoming Journal of Evolutionary Economics

McMillan, M. S., D. Rodrik, & I. Verduzco-Gallo (2014) “Globalization, structural change and productivity growth: with an update on Africa” World Development, vol. 63, pp. 11-32.

Craighead, W. D. and D. R. Hineline (2014) “Current account reversals and structural change in developing and industrialized countries” forthcoming Journal of International Trade and Development.

Bah, El-hadj (2013) “Distortions, structural transformation and the Europe-US income gap” B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, vol 13 (1), pp. 681-714.

Aizenman, J., B. Pinto, V. Sushko (2013) “Financial Sector Ups and Downs and the Real Sector: Up by the Stairs and Down by the Parachute” Emerging Markets Review, vol. 16, pp. 1-30.

Ferreira, P. C., S. de Abreu Pessôa, F. A. Veloso (2013) “On the Evolution of Total Factor Productivity in Latin America” Economic Inquiry, vol. 51(1), pp. 16-30.

Diego Restuccia (2013) “The Latin American Development Problem: An Interpretation” Economía, vol. 13 (2), pp. 69-100.

Murat Üngör (2013) “De-agriculturalization as a result of productivity growth in agriculture” Economic Letters, vol. 119(2), pp. 141-145.

Szirmai, A. (2012) “Industrialisation as an engine of growth in developing countries, 1950–2005” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, vol. 23 (4), pp. 406-420.

Alvarez-Cuadrado, F. and M. Poschke (2011) “Structural Change out of Agriculture: Labor Push versus Labor Pull” American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, vol. 3(3), pp. 127-158.

Eduardo Lora and Carmen Pagés (2011) "Face-to-Face with Productivity" Finance & Development, Vol. 48 (1).

Margaret McMillan and Dani Rodrik (2011) "Globalization, Structural Change, and Productivity Growth" NBER working paper 17143.

Inter-American Development Bank (2010) “The Age of Productivity: Transforming Economies from the Bottom Up". ed. Carmen Pagès. Palgrave Macmillan.

Timmer, M. P. and G. J. de Vries (2009) "Structural Change and Growth Accelerations in Asia and Latin America: A New Sectoral Data Set" Cliometrica, vol. 3 (2), pp. 165-190.

Previous version

The 2007 version of the GGDC 10-Sector database is still available on this page.


If you have any questions or remarks concerning the GGDC 10-Sector database, you can send an e-mail to

Last modified:January 21, 2015 14:22