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GDDC Databases

GGDC 10-Sector Database

Version 2014


The GGDC 10-Sector Database provides a long-run internationally comparable dataset on sectoral productivity performance in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Variables covered in the data set are annual series of value added, output deflators, and persons employed for 10 broad sectors. It gives sector detail to the historical macro data in Maddison (2003) from 1950 onwards. It consists of series for 11 countries in Africa, 11 countries in Asia, 2 countries in the Middle East and North Africa, and 9 in Latin-America. For comparison, we have also added data for the US and several European countries.

It should be stressed that the estimates for the total economy are aggregated across sectors and that, because of adjustments at the sector level, the aggregate results are not fully consistent with the national accounts aggregates (see the sources and methods document). Also note that value added data in this database are expressed in local currencies.

When using the GGDC 10-sector database reference should be made to:

M.P. Timmer, G.J. de Vries, and K. de Vries (2014). “Patterns of Structural Change in Developing Countries.” GGDC research memorandum 149 .


Output and labour data This file includes the output and labour data for all countries and variables (Excel file).
Output and labour data This file includes the output and labour data for all countries and variables (Stata data file). See readme.txt for a description of the variables

Country and variable coverage in the GGDC 10-Sector Database

Acronym Country Value Added in current prices Value Added in constant prices Employment by sector
Sub-Saharan Africa
BWA Botswana 1964-2010 1964-2010 1964-2010
ETH Ethiopia 1961-2010 1961-2010 1961-2010
GHA Ghana 1960-2010 1960-2010 1960-2010
KEN Kenya 1960-2010 1964-2010 1969-2010
MWI Malawi 1960-2010 1966-2010 1966-2010
MUS Mauritius 1960-2010 1970-2010 1970-2010
NGA Nigeria 1960-2010 1960-2010 1960-2011
NGA(alt) Nigeria (2014 GDP revision) 2010-2013 2010-2013 (in 2010 prices)
SEN Senegal 1960-2010 1970-2010 1970-2010
ZAF South Africa 1960-2010 1960-2010 1960-2010
TZA Tanzania 1960-2010 1960-2010 1960-2010
ZMB Zambia 1960-2010 1965-2010 1965-2010
North Africa
EGY Egypt 1960-2013 1960-2012 1960-2012
MOR Morocco 1970-2012 1960-2012 1960-2012
CHN China 1952-2011 1952-2010 1952-2011
HKG Hong Kong 1970-2011 1974-2011 1974-2011
IND India 1950-2012 1950-2012 1960-2010
IDN Indonesia 1966-2012 1960-2012 1961-2012
JPN Japan 1953-2011 1953-2011 1953-2012
KOR South Korea 1953-2011 1953-2011 1963-2011
MYS Malaysia 1970-2011 1970-2011 1975-2011
PHL Philippines 1971-2012 1971-2012 1971-2012
SGP Singapore 1970-2012 1960-2012 1970-2011
TWN Taiwan 1951-2012 1961-2012 1963-2012
THA Thailand 1951-2011 1951-2011 1960-2011
Latin America
ARG Argentina 1950-2011 1950-2011 1950-2011
BOL Bolivia 1958-2011 1950-2011 1950-2010
BRA Brazil 1990-2011 1950-2011 1950-2011
CHL Chile 1950-2011 1950-2011 1950-2012
COL Colombia 1950-2011 1950-2011 1950-2010
CRI Costa Rica 1950-2011 1950-2011 1950-2011
MEX Mexico 1950-2011 1950-2011 1950-2012
PER Peru 1950-2011 1950-2011 1960-2011
VEN Venezuela 1960-2012 1950-2012 1950-2011
North America
USA United States of America 1947-2010 1947-2010 1950-2010
DEW West Germany 1968-1991 1950-1991 (1991 prices) 1950-1991
DNK Denmark 1970-2011 1947-2009 1948-2011
ESP Spain 1970-2011 1947-2009 1950-2011
FRA France 1970-2011 1950-2009 1950-2011
GBR United Kingdom 1960-2011 1949-2009 1948-2011
ITA Italy 1970-2011 1951-2009 1951-2011
NLD The Netherlands 1970-2011 1949-2009 1950-2011
SWE Sweden 1970-2011 1950-2009 1950-2011

Sectors covered

ISIC Rev. 3.1 code ASD sector name ISIC Rev. 3.1 description
AtB Agriculture Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry, Fishing
C Mining Mining and Quarrying
D Manufacturing Manufacturing
E Utilities Electricity, Gas and Water supply
F Construction Construction
G+H Trade services Wholesale and Retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods, Hotels and Restaurants
I Transport services Transport, Storage and Communications
J+K Business services Financial Intermediation, Renting and Business Activities (excluding owner occupied rents)
L,M,N Government services Public Administration and Defense, Education, Health and Social work
O,P Personal services Other Community, Social and Personal service activities, Activities of Private Households
TOT Total Economy Total Economy


Sources and Methods This document describes the general sources and methods used to construct the GGDC 10-sector database, as well as the detailed sources and methods by country.

Examples of Research Based on this Database

Fulvio Castellacci, Bart Los, and Gaaitzen J. de Vries (2014) "Sectoral Productivity Convergence: Discovering Convergence Islands in Oceans of non-Convergence” forthcoming Journal of Evolutionary Economics

McMillan, M. S., D. Rodrik, & I. Verduzco-Gallo (2014) “Globalization, structural change and productivity growth: with an update on Africa” World Development, vol. 63, pp. 11-32.

Craighead, W. D. and D. R. Hineline (2014) “Current account reversals and structural change in developing and industrialized countries” forthcoming Journal of International Trade and Development.

Bah, El-hadj (2013) “Distortions, structural transformation and the Europe-US income gap” B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, vol 13 (1), pp. 681-714.

Aizenman, J., B. Pinto, V. Sushko (2013) “Financial Sector Ups and Downs and the Real Sector: Up by the Stairs and Down by the Parachute” Emerging Markets Review, vol. 16, pp. 1-30.

Ferreira, P. C., S. de Abreu Pessôa, F. A. Veloso (2013) “On the Evolution of Total Factor Productivity in Latin America” Economic Inquiry, vol. 51(1), pp. 16-30.

Diego Restuccia (2013) “The Latin American Development Problem: An Interpretation” Economía, vol. 13 (2), pp. 69-100.

Murat Üngör (2013) “De-agriculturalization as a result of productivity growth in agriculture” Economic Letters, vol. 119(2), pp. 141-145.

Szirmai, A. (2012) “Industrialisation as an engine of growth in developing countries, 1950–2005” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, vol. 23 (4), pp. 406-420.

Alvarez-Cuadrado, F. and M. Poschke (2011) “Structural Change out of Agriculture: Labor Push versus Labor Pull” American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, vol. 3(3), pp. 127-158.

Eduardo Lora and Carmen Pagés (2011) "Face-to-Face with Productivity" Finance & Development, Vol. 48 (1).

Margaret McMillan and Dani Rodrik (2011) "Globalization, Structural Change, and Productivity Growth" NBER working paper 17143.

Inter-American Development Bank (2010) “The Age of Productivity: Transforming Economies from the Bottom Up". ed. Carmen Pagès. Palgrave Macmillan.

Timmer, M. P. and G. J. de Vries (2009) "Structural Change and Growth Accelerations in Asia and Latin America: A New Sectoral Data Set" Cliometrica, vol. 3 (2), pp. 165-190.

Previous version

The 2007 version of the GGDC 10-Sector database is still available on this page.


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Last modified:January 21, 2015 14:22