A. Rachovitsa, PhD
- Ph.D. (University of Nottingham, 2013)
- LL.M. in Public International Law (Distinction) (School of Law, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, 2008)
- Degree in Law (School of Law, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece, 2004)
- Barrister and Solicitor (Greece, 2006 - present) (currently non-practicing)
- Rachovitsa, ‘On New “Judicial Animals”: The Curious Case of an African Court with Material Jurisdiction of Global Scope’ (2019) 19 Human Rights Law Review 255-289
- Rachovitsa, ‘The Principle of Systemic Integration in Human Rights Law’ (2017) 66 International & Comparative Law Quarterly 557-588
- Rachovitsa, ‘Rethinking Privacy Online and Human Rights: The Internet’s Standardisation Bodies as the Guardians of Privacy Online in the Face of Mass Surveillance’, European Society of International Law, C. Binder et al (eds.), Conference Paper Series 7, Conference Paper No. 5/2016 (2016 ESIL Research Forum - Istanbul) (16,500 words)
- Rachovitsa, ‘On the Sidelines of the Failed Coup d’ État in Turkey: Can Greece Extradite the Eight Turkish Military Officers to Turkey?’  European Human Rights Law Review 645-655
- Rachovitsa, ‘Engineering and Lawyering Privacy by Design: Understanding Online Privacy both as a Technical and an International Human Rights Issue in the Face of Mass Surveillance’ (2016) 24 International Journal of Law & Information Technology 374-399
- Rachovitsa, ‘General Principles of Public Order and Morality and the Domain Name System: Whither International Law?’ (2016) 63 Netherlands International Law Review 23-49
- Rachovitsa, ‘Treaty Clauses and Fragmentation of International Law: Applying the More Favourable Protection Clause in Human Rights Treaties’ (2016) 16 Human Rights Law Review 77-101
- Rachovitsa, ‘Fragmentation of International Law Revisited: Insights, Good Practices and Lessons to be Learned from the Case-Law of the European Court of Human Rights’ (2015) 28 Leiden Journal of International Law 863-885
- Rachovitsa, ‘Interpreting the European Convention on Human Rights in Light of Other International Treaties According to the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights’, (2010) 45 Revue Hellénique des Droits de l’ Homme 81-126 (in Greek)
- Rachovitsa, ‘The Death Penalty from the Standpoint of the Criminal Justice System in China’, 2007 Epetirida Armenopoulou 288 (in Greek) (8,000 words)
- Invited expert contribution, Max Planck Encyclopaedia of International Procedural Law, entry "Balancing test (ACtHPR)" (10,500 words) (forthcoming)
- Rachovitsa, ‘Designing for the Best Composition of International Courts: The Value of Diverse and Specialised International Law Expertise on the Bench’, in Eric de Brabandere (ed.), International Prcedure in Interstate Ligitation: A Comparative Approach (CUP, 2021) (10,000 words)
- Rachovitsa, ‘International Law and the Global Public Interest - ICANN’s Independent Objector as a Mechanism of Responsive Global Governance’, in Summers and A. Gough (eds.), Non-State Actors and International Obligations – Creation, Evolution and Enforcement (BRILL, 2018) pp. 342-368
- Rachovitsa, ‘The African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights: A Uniquely Equipped Testbed for (the Limits of) Human Rights Integration?’, in Bribosia and I. Rorive (eds.), Human Rights Tectonics: Global Dynamics of Integration and Fragmentation (Intersentia, 2018) pp. 69-88
- Case comment, ACtHPR, Gombert v Côte d’Ivoire, Judgement of 22 March 2018 (2021) 27(4) International Human Rights Reports
- Case comment ACtHPR, The Matter of Anudo Ochieng Anudo v. United Republic of Tanzania, Judgment of 22 March 2018 (2021) 27(4) International Human Rights Reports
- Case comment, AComHPR, Gabriel Shumba v Republic of Zimbabwe, Communication No 288/2004 (2021) 27(4) International Human Rights Reports
- Co-editor (with M. Hesselman), Special Issue "International Law for the Sustainable Development Goals", Brill Open Law
- Rachovitsa, ‘An Arusha-based world court on human rights for African States?’, EJILTalk!, 7 November 2019
- Introduction (with M. Hesselman), Special Issue International Law for the Sustainable Development Goals, (2020) 2 Brill Open Law 1-7
- Rachovitsa, ‘Blockchain for Open Science and Sustainable Development Goals’ Spring 2018, International Legal Research Informer Newsletter (American Society of International Law) 2-4
- Rachovitsa, ‘Blockchain 4 Open Science and SDGS’, in Blockchain for Sustainable Development Goals – Report 2018 (Data Research Center and Globalisation Studies, University of Groningen) 19-21
- Rachovitsa, ‘Book Review: The Reception of International Law in the European Court of Human Rights (M. Forowicz)’ (2011) 11 Human Rights Law Review 795-799
FELLOWSHIPS - AWARDS
- Visiting Scholar Melbourne Law School, Institute for International Law and the Humanities (July 2019).
- 2017 Lecturer of the Year, Faculty of Law, University of Groningen (upon nomination & election). I am the first woman and first international member of staff and non-Dutch speaker to get this award in the Faculty of Law.
- Research Fellow in International Law (upon nomination). Krateros Ioannou Research Institute for International Law & International Relations, Democritus School of Law, Greece (2017-2022).
- Research Fellow at UC Berkeley - Centre for Technology, Society & Policy (competitively awarded) (2015-2016). Project on ‘Coding Values in the Internet’s Standards? The Example of Encryption’.
- Research Excellence Award (College of Law, Qatar University, 2015).
- Greek State Scholarships Foundation Fellowship for Doctoral Research (2008-2011).
Dutch Research Council (NWO) (€750,000) (March 2020 - March 2024)
Dr Mando Rachovitsa (RuG, co-applicant) together with Prof Paul Groth (UvA, co-applicant), Dr Stefania Milan (UvA, main applicant) and the Dutch standardisation body (NEN) have been awarded a grant by the NWO for the project “Making the hidden visible: Co-designing for public values in standards-making and governance”.
The 4-year project brings together the humanities, computer science and international law in order to better understand and investigate the relationship between societal values and ICT standards on products, services and processes.
The research will explore how standards can be value- and rights-respecting by design and it aims at designing a corresponding methodology and intelligent interventions to involve public and private actors. Three case studies are under investigation: (a) Applications of 5G Cellular Mobile Communication for Social Inclusion; (b) Global Identity Management Standards and Local Applicability; and (c) Development of Cybersecurity Standards for IoT. There will be close collaboration with national stakeholders, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Justice & Security and the Municipality of The Hague, producing policy-relevant outcomes and finding ways for citizen participation in national and international ICT standard-setting processes.
Research Start –up Grant, Qatar University (£6,800) (April 2014 – April 2015)
The grant was awarded to research the protection of privacy online from a legal and technical point of view. The research outcome is an original scholarly article (please see publications list) highlighting the reasons that policy-makers should value privacy online.
CONFERENCE PARTICIPATION - INVITED TALKS
- ‘The Right to Be Forgotten as a Global Censorship Mechanism? The ECtHR Juggling Political Expression, Privacy and the Internet’s Integrity’, Old and New Threats to Freedom of Expression, Hertie School Centre for Fundamental Rights (online, 11 June 2021)
- ‘Teaching and (un)learning international law in Qatar’, Webinar Series: Teaching International Law, British Institute of International and Comparative Law (online, 23 April 2021) recording on YouTube
- Human Rights Law Reasoning 2.0: Accommodating the technical features of the Internet into human rights law?, British & Irish Law Education and Technology Association Annual Conference, (online, Apr 2021)
- ‘Teaching and Learning Dissidence and Interdisciplinarity by Telling Stories’, Teaching Academy Groningen, presentation, nominated by the Honours Programme, University of Groningen for the Masterclass Dissidence in Leadership: “What Would Bert Roling Do?” to be showcased as innovative teaching (online, April 2021)
- ‘Teaching International Human Rights Law for Global Challenges: Applying the Design Thinking Approach’, 2nd Global Studies International Week, Faculty of Law, University of Salamanca (online, April 2021)
- ‘Doing What We Love? Giving Students More Space to Become Creative, Independent Learners’, Symposium on Innovations in International Legal Education During the Pandemic, Southern Illinois University Law Journal (online, Apr 2021)
- ‘Banksy and (re-) thinking technology’, 2nd Global Studies International Week, Faculty of Law, University of Salamanca (online, Apr 2021)
- ‘Digital Identity in Indonesia and Human Rights Challenges’ (upon invitation) Unraveling Access to Justice in a Time of Uncertainty, Faculty of Law, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia (online, Oct 2020)
- ‘Comparing the Jurisdiction Ratione Materiae of International Courts on Human Rights: New Designs and Old Anxieties’ (upon invitation) Cycle Conférences sur l'Europe (Faculty of Law, University of Fribourg, Switzerland, 29 Oct 2019)
- ‘What Are International Courts Made Of? The Law and Politics of the Expertise of International Judges’, lunchtime seminar (Melbourne Law School, 16 Jul 2019)
- ‘Non-legal Expertise and Practice-based (Legal) Experience: What is Their Place on the International Bench?’, 27th Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Society of International Law, International Law Futures: The Intersection of Law with Knowledge, Information and Expertise (Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 4-6 Jul 2019)
- ‘On New “Judicial Animals”: The Curious Case of an African World Court on Human Rights’, PluriCourts 2019 Workshop, The Political and Legal Theory of International Courts and Tribunals (Oslo, 24-26 Jun 2019)
- ‘(International) Law as AutoCorrect’, Panel on “Society Rebooted: Digital Infrastructure and its Governmentality”, 19th Day of Sociology (University of Amsterdam, 27 Jun 2019)
- ‘The Law and Politics of the Requirement of “Recognised Competence in International Law”: (S)electing Judges and Arbitrators and Controlling the International Bench’, Conference on Comparative Procedure in State-to-State Disputes (Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University, The Hague, 28-29 May 2019)
- ‘Procedural Rules on Selecting Judges: Developments Across International Courts’, Conference on Procedural Rules of International Courts and Tribunals: Between Change and Stability (Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 3 May 2019)
- ‘The Protection of Human Rights in the Core Architecture of the Internet’, Annual Research Day (Toogdag 2018) – “The Future of Human Rights – Human Rights of the Future” (Netherlands Network for Human Rights Research, Tilburg, 22 Jun 2018)
- ‘Blockchain 4 Open Science’, Lightning Talk (upon invitation), ‘Blockchain4SDGs', (Data Research Centre - University College Fryslân, Leeuwarden, Dec 2017)
- ‘Is the Right to Science the Missing Key to Realising the Transfer and Development of Technology in the Sustainable Development Goals?’, Workshop on ‘Financing and the Right to Science in Technology Transfer in the SDGs’ - Workshop Series 2017-2018 International Law for the Sustainable Development Goals (University of Groningen, Groningen, Nov 2017)
- ‘Human Rights Online and Cybersecurity – Asking New, Better Questions Instead of Answering Old Questions?’ (upon invitation), ‘Georgia in the Spectrum of International Law’ - Joint Conference organised by the Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University and the University of Groningen (Tbilisi, Nov 2017)
- ‘An International Bill of Rights for the States of the Arabian Peninsula?’, Conference on Islamic Law and its Implementation in Asia and the Middle East (British Institute of International and Comparative Law, London, Oct 2017).
- ‘“The UN Works”: An Alternative Narrative of the UN Observances and their Impact to Framing New Agendas and Law-making” (upon invitation), 'Calendar Propaganda' of Human Rights? Historical Perspectives on the United Nations’ Global Observances (Leiden University, Leiden, Jun 2017)
- ‘Revisiting the Gulf Cooperation States’ Commitment to the Universal Human Rights Project’, Regional Human Rights Systems in Crisis - Annual Symposium Wisconsin International Law Journal (University of Wisconsin Law School, Wisconsin, Mar 2017)
- ‘The Internet Engineering Task Force as the Guardian of Privacy Online: Developing Privacy Enabling Internet Protocols’ (invited remote participation) (IETF 98, Chicago, Mar 2017)
- ‘Rule of Law 2.0: Articulating Human Rights and Security Online’, Toogdag – Annual Research Day: “The Rule of Law and Human Rights: Interrelated and Interdependent?” (Netherlands School of Human Rights Research Day, Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Nov 2016)
- ‘“Humanizing” the Net? How to Conceptualise the Relationship between Cyber Security and Privacy’, 12th Annual ESIL Conference – Agora (Riga, Sept 2016)
- ‘Unjust Law & the Ideal of Justice: Universality and Contemporaneity’ (invited speaker) ‘Greek Studies Day Event’, College of Arts & Sciences in Collaboration with the Embassy of Greece in Qatar (Qatar University, Doha, May 2016)
- ‘Is ICANN Using Public International Law as a Panacea for Internet Governance Issues?’ ILA British Branch Spring Conference 2016 (Lancaster, Apr 2016)
- ‘“Legislation” by Technology while International Law Looks Away?: The Internet Standardisation Bodies as Guardians of Online Privacy, ESIL Research Forum – ‘The Making of International Law’(Koç University, Istanbul, Apr 2016)
- ‘“I Move Things Around Until They Look Right”: Methodological and Policy Concerns on Human Rights’ Integration’, International Conference on ‘The Global Challenge of Human Rights Integration: Towards a Users’ Perspective’ (Ghent, Dec 2015)
- ‘Informal International Law-Making and Privacy by Design’, ‘Amsterdam Privacy Conference – APC 2015’ (Amsterdam, Oct 2015)
- ‘“Digital Arms” & Regulating the Industry of Surveillance Technologies’, Institute for Global Law & Policy Workshop, Harvard Law School (Doha, Jan 2015)
- ‘Teaching Human Rights as a Core Curriculum Course at Qatar University’, Event on Celebrating the International Day on the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (Qatar University, Doha, Dec 2014)
- ‘Access to Information as an Enabler and Catalyst of Good Governance and Development – Insights from Recent Practices in the Arab Region’, World Bank, World Bank Forum on Law, Justice & Development (Washington DC, Oct 2014)
- ‘Cyberspace and Public Space’, 2014 Inaugural Conference -The International Society of Public Law, Rethinking the Boundaries of Public Law and Public Space, EUI (Florence, Oct 2014)
- ‘Taking a Step Forward: Applying Comparative Methodology in International Law’, 50th Anniversary Conference of the Québec Society of Comparative Law (Québec, Oct 2011)
- ‘Determining the Scope of a Dispute before the European Court of Human Rights: Recent Challenges’, 2011 UCD Workshop on Human Rights: The Legacy and Future of the ECHR: Evaluating Sixty Years of the European Human Rights Project (University College Dublin, School of Law, Dublin, Apr 2011)
- ‘The Ambiguous Contribution of the Application of the Most-Favoured Protection Clauses to the Fragmentation of International Law’, 4th International Graduate Legal Research Conference (King’s College, London, Apr 2010)
EDITORIAL & REFEREE ACTIVITIES
- Commentator, International Human Rights Reports, University of Nottingham, Human Rights Law Centre (Sept 20 – present)
- Section Editor (Human Rights) – BRILL Open Law Journal (Apr 17 – Jan 19)
- Member of the Editorial Committee – International Review of Law (QScience) (Sept 13 – Jul 16)
- Reviewer (Sept 14 – present): OUP (book reviewer); World Trade Review (CUP); International Review of Law (QScience); ZaöRV/Heidelberg Journal of International Law; Global Journal of Comparative Law (BRILL); International Journal of Law & Information Technology (OUP); Human Rights Law Review (OUP); Review of European Administrative Law (UitGeverij Paris)
OTHER CONTRIBUTION TO ACADEMIC SERVICE
Member, Faculty Council, Faculty of Law, University of Groningen (elected) (Aug 2020 - present)
- Chairperson, LLM Programme Committee, Faculty of Law, University of Groningen (elected) (Sept 2020 - present)
- Member, LLM Programme Committee, Faculty of Law, University of Groningen (appointed) (Sept 2019-Sept 2020)
- Member, Programme Committee, 2020 GigaNet Annual Symposium (Mar 2020-Nov 2020)
- Moderator, Symposium on 2020 US elections, Panel consisting of Samantha Power (former US Ambassador to the UN) and André Haspels (Dutch Ambassador to the USA), SIB Groningen (Jun 2020)
- Co-organiser (with M. Hesselman) Workshop Series “International Law for the Sustainable Development Goals”, University of Groningen (8 workshops, April 2017 – September 2019)
- Founder & Elected Secretary, Qatari Branch of the International Law Association (Sept 2013 – Jul 2016)
- Invited participation – Office of the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights – Regional Forum on the Protection of the Right to Education during Insecurity and Armed Conflict in the Middle East and North Africa Region, Dead Sea, Jordan (January 2014)
- Academic Advisor, Students’ Human Rights Club, Qatar University (Apr 2014 – Jul 2016). I provided academic guidance on the students’ activities and mentor them how to collaborate and engage with external stakeholders, including Qatari governmental agencies and the local community.
- Organiser of the International Conference ‘Syrian Crisis and International Law’, Doha, Qatar (Feb 2014). The conference brought together twenty European and US-based academics to discuss the Syrian crisis in the Middle East. I had sole responsibility for the running of this conference, which was broadcast live by Al Jazeera.
- Initiated the collaboration between Qatar University and the Justice & Peace project The Netherlands and organised Qatar University students’ study trip to The Netherlands (Sept 2015)
POLICY-MAKING CONSULTATION · EXPERT CONTRIBUTION
- Consultancy: Peer-reviewer, Study commissioned by the European Parliament, Digital Technologies as a Means of Repression and Social Control - Options for the EU’s External Human Rights Policy (2021)
- Invited expert contribution to the independent evaluation of the international cybersecurity policy of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Policy and Operations Evaluation Department, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Jun 2020)
- Expert contribution, upon invitation by the UN Special Rapporteur on Privacy (MAPPING event, Rome, January 2018). Discussed the draft legal instrument on government surveillance and privacy and provided written comments.
- Invited expert contribution, Open Consultation on the UN Group of Government Experts (UN GGE) 2015 Cyber Norm recommendations regarding responsible State behaviour in cyberspace. I offered comments on international human rights law and cyberspace - Norm (e) (Leiden University, Oct 2017).
- Participant to the Research Group on Human Rights Protocols Considerations, Internet Research Task Force. Drafting human rights related guidelines to be considered by the engineering community when creating and updating Internet standards.
- Participant to the Cross Community Working Group on Enhancing ICANN Accountability, ICANN (Nov 2014 – Dec 2016).
- Invited participation, expert workshop on 'Decision-making in Standard Developing Organisations for the Internet' (organised by the Universities of Exeter, Salford, and Warwick, Brussels, Apr 2017).
- Expert Participation, invited to the Consultative Meeting on Cyber Crime Law in Qatar (Doha Centre for Media Freedom, Doha, Feb 2015). I offered legal advice on the drafting of the cybercrime law and the data protection law in Qatar.
- Expert Participation, invited by the Qatar Ministry of Information and Telecommunication Technology, ‘Cyber Security in the Middle East’ (Doha, Nov 2014). I offered legal and policy advice on the formulation and implementation of a cybersecurity strategy in Qatar.
MEDIA ENGAGEMENT · PUBLIC TALKS · OUTREACH
Justice & Peace, Shelter City – Groningen, Human Rights Education & Outreach (Dec 2018). I collaborated with a guest human rights defender, who advocates against domestic violence in Nigeria, on “translating” the Nigerian domestic violence legislation into lay language for non-legal audiences. The outcome is used for advocacy in Nigeria.
Selected Invited Public Talks
- ‘Journalists and Human Rights Defenders: Freedom of expression and Civic Space at Gunpoint’, Amnesty International, Groningen (Dec 2018)
- ‘Women’s Rights in the Middle East’, Amnesty International, Groningen (Mar 2017)
- ‘Give Away your Privacy and Keep Playing. Or Not?’, Bits of Freedom & Amnesty International, Groningen (Feb 2017)
- ‘Implementing Privacy by Design in Internet Protocols – What Does It Mean and Why Does It Matter?’, Privacy Paleis, Groningen (Nov 2016)
- ‘A European International Lawyer Walks into Qatar. Now What?’, Amnesty International, Groningen (Oct 2016)
- ‘Can Greece Extradite the 8 Turkish Military Officers to Turkey? The Real Risk of a Flagrant Denial of Justice in Post-Coup Turkey’, Guest Blog – Fair Trials (Nov 2016)
- Op-ed - ‘The Extradition of the Eight Military Officer to Turkey Violates Greek and International Law’ (in Greek) 28 July 2016, Daily Newspaper, Greece (Jul 2016)
- Invited TED Talk, ‘Teaching Human Rights in the Middle East: An Invitation to Re-Imagine International Law’ TEDxLesvos, Greece (Oct 2015)
- Interview with ‘Gulf Times’ newspaper: ‘Legal Expert Calls for Careful Application of Cyber Crime Law’ (Feb 2015)
- Al Jazeera list for international law experts (2014)
Membership of Professional Associations & Research Networks
- Institute for Global Law & Policy, Harvard Law School (Alumna)
- Community of Practice on Human Rights & Development, World Bank Forum on Law, Justice & Development (Member)
- International Law Association (Founder & former elected Secretary – Qatari Branch; presently Member – Netherlands’ Branch)
- Internet Society (Member)
- Netherlands Network for Human Rights Research (Member)
- European Society of International Law (Member)
- American Society of International Law (Member)
- Society of Legal Scholars, UK (Member)
- Hellenic League for Human Rights (Member)
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