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Choerudin S. (UG, PhD candidate)

Port-cities relationship and sustainable development in Indonesia: The case of Patimban port and Rebana metropolitan area

Abstract. This paper discusses the challenges from an institutional perspectives on how to achieve sustainable port cities in Indonesia by exploring two interrelated cases, the development of Patimban port and the surrounding Rebana metropolitan area. The discussion gives a new perspective on how developing countries in Southeast Asia deal with institutional conflict in the port-cities relationship. The development of port-cities interfaces in Indonesia is strongly influenced by economic growth policies based on developing industrial areas that depend on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). The construction of Patimban port and the Rebana metropolitan area is related to the increased influence of markets, capitalism and economic growth on the one hand and environmental concern on the other. These two areas are certainly a conflict that requires an institutional arrangement where the challenge is a change in relations at multi-level government scales. The central government currently plays more of a role in strategic development, requiring a more integrated, flexible, and participatory governance capacity. Coordination between sectors and between governments is needed on a broader regional scale. Instead of thinking in traditional administrative boundaries, port-cities interface planning should be more directed at regional scales based on socio-economic and spatial-environmental impacts. Thus, more vital local-regional institutions are needed to increase local capacity in managing impacts from development towards a sustainable society in the future.

Keywords: Port-cities interface; Sustainable development; Climate change; Institutional arrangement.

Author: Choerudin S is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Spatial Planning and Environment of the Faculty of Spatial Sciences at the University of Groningen. Currently, he is working on his Ph.D. dissertation on the port-cities relationship toward sustainable urban and regional from an institutional perspective under the supervision of Prof. Ronald Holzhacker, Prof. Johan Woltjer, and Dr. Tim Busscher. Formerly, he served as head of the subdivision of road transport in the Ministry of Transportation, Indonesia. He holds an LPDP scholarship from the government of Indonesia. He has a bachelor's degree in Civil engineering from Maranatha Christian University, Bandung, and a double master's degree in Transport Planning from the Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) and Environmental and infrastructure planning from the University of Groningen, Netherlands.

Asri Samsu (UG-ITB double degree PhD) Institutional Planning for Integrated Water

Management Approach (IUWM): Indonesia
Integrated Urban Water Management in Makassar, Indonesia.

Abstract: The climate change issue has aggravated the challenge of urban water sources' availability and quality while the population projection is increasing. Studies offer the integration of urban water cycles: surface water, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater, as an integrated water management approach for facing the challenge and achieving water sustainability. However, studies on understanding urban water integration in Indonesia are still limited. This study aims to explore water policies toward the integrated approach in Indonesia, with Makassar as a case study, focusing on answering three specific questions: (1) To what extent do urban water cycles in the Makassar metropolitan cities experience integration approaches? (2) Is climate change being considered by Makassar officials as part of the integrated water approach? (3) How should planning respond to the emergence of the integrated approach?

To answer these questions, this research uses qualitative content analysis to focus on water policies and development planning in Makassar. A conventional content analysis approach was used to determine the integration approach, internal and external, which focuses on the policy and planning at different levels of government involved. In addition, the integrations are compared to the integrated approach principle, climate change issues, and development planning before determining the city approach position and suggesting sustainable integration of urban water management.

The analysis shows that water imbalance and rivalry are significant issues in Makassar's urban water management. There has been an internal and external integration effort in Makassar to face those issues. From an internal perspective, documents show an integrated effort in the regional spatial approach and small island communities. However, there is still a significant gap in integrating urban and agricultural water policies. Moreover, climate change issues are limited as a consideration in water policy integration. Thus, integrated urban water management institutionalization is needed to align internal and external coherence. (299)

Key Words: climate change, water and sanitation SDG, integrated urban water management, institutional framework

Author: Asri Samsu is a Ph.D. double degree student between the University of Groningen, the Netherlands, and ITB, Indonesia. He was graduated from a double degree master's program in urban and regional planning between Curtin University, Australia, and Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. Before joining the doctoral program at the University of Groningen and ITB, Asri Samsu was the head of the Infrastructure and Spatial Sub-division in Regional Development Planning, Research, and Development Board of Soppeng Regency. Moreover, as a civil servant, he is a planner for an infrastructure development plan in Soppeng Regency, including water and sanitation infrastructure as well as irrigation for agriculture infrastructure. His primary interest is in water provision planning, development, and sustainability, focusing on an integrated approach and institutional planning.

Martin Drenth (UG, PhD. candidate)

Urban Climate Adaptation in Indonesian Metropolitan Areas: Governance Challenges in Developing Adaptation Strategies in Medan

Abstract: Cities in Southeast Asia are facing a range of climate challenges related to the water sector, such as flooding due to increased extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and difficulties accessing water during prolonged dry seasons. Urban water systems must continuously adapt and transition between these extremes. Whereas traditional approaches have prioritized engineering measures, climate change also has societal impacts on the water sector that affect equity and the distribution of water. Recently, the Water Sensitive City (WSC) has been proposed as a promising concept to improve urban climate resilience. With its institutional perspective, the WSC concept could also aid the achievement of SDGs 6, 10, and 11. Despite its perceived benefits, the enabling conditions for the concept in Indonesian metropolitan areas are still unclear. This study therefore explores the governance challenges in developing urban climate adaptation strategies by taking Medan, Indonesia’s third-largest city, as a case study. Medan’s northern part borders the Strait of Malacca, thus facing sea level rise. The city currently faces water supply challenges, flooding and development pressures. Located on Sumatra, one of Indonesia’s Outer Islands (those ‘outside’ Java Island), Medan is relatively less-researched than cities on Java, such as Jakarta. The chapter will first describe the impact of climate change in Indonesia and show how the city level is embedded within Indonesia’s national policy framework for climate change. It will also explain the local context and effects of climate change on Medan and assess the city’s local urban adaptation strategies and challenges. The analysis seeks to uncover which aspects of the WSC concept are particularly relevant in the Indonesian climate adaptation context. The chapter will conclude by proposing enabling conditions for water sensitive city strategies that can overcome the governance challenges that Indonesian Metropolitan Areas face in dealing with the effects of climate change.

Keywords: Water Sensitive City; Governance Challenges; Urban Climate Adaptation; Equitable Water Supply; Global South

Author: Martin Drenth is a PhD Candidate at the Department of Spatial Planning & Environment, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen. He spent most of his professional life in Indonesia. As a researcher, he was affiliated with the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB). Martin has varying research interests, including inclusive planning, climate change adaptation, and resilience in an urban context. In his PhD research, Martin studies the institutional design and governance that can help Indonesian cities transform into water sensitive cities that are more inclusive and climate-resilient. His case studies are Bandung and Medan. These metropolitan areas face a wide range of water-related problems. Recently, Martin studied the hydrosocial cycle of Bandung’s water system to analyze the influence of socio-political relations in achieving the SDGs.

Intan Novianingsih (UG-ITB double degree PhD)

EQUALITY IN REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:
An Exploration of the Potential of Geographical Bundling in Transport Infrastructure Public-Private Partnerships in Indonesia

Intan Novianingsih, Stefan Verweij, Jos Arts, Johan Woltjer, Delik Hudalah, Pradono Pradono

Abstract: Equality in regional economic development is an important challenge in many countries, including developing countries such as Indonesia. Inequality has adverse effects such discrepancies in poverty levels, a lacking attention to environmental and climate change issues, and social tensions. The provision of transport infrastructure is traditionally considered as a major means to achieve economic development, thereby alleviating regional economic inequalities. As a consequence of lacking funding capacity, many governments look to Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) for the delivery of transport infrastructure. This is especially the case in developing countries. Although there is a vast literature about the potential positive (economic) effects of PPPs and the factors explaining these effects, little is known about how PPPs can contribute to increasing economic equality specifically.

In this paper, we look into “geographical bundling” in PPPs. Geographical bundling concerns the merging of several similar transport infrastructure projects, that are in different economic regions, into a single contract and operational scheme. Regions are defined by administrative boundaries and different projects are distinguished by location, function, and scale. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential benefits of geographical bundling by PPPs for achieving equality in regional economic development. Based on a review of literature, we will discuss the meaning and manifestation of geographical bundling, how it is manifested in PPPs specifically, and what the potential benefits are for equality in regional economic development. Next, the framework is applied to the case of Indonesia, a country characterized by major regional economic inequalities. The Indonesian government bundled some sections of toll road development in Java Island (advantaged region) with toll sections in Sumatera Island (disadvantaged region). Secondary data (reports, websites, case studies) and primary data (explorative interviews) are collected and qualitatively analyzed. The paper provides first insights into how geographical bundling in transport infrastructure PPPs could enhance the equality in regional economic development between regions.

Keywords: Equality; Regional Economic Development; Transport Infrastructure; Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs); Geographical Bundling

First Author: Intan Novianingsih, MT,M.Sc is a PhD researcher in Infrastructure Planning in the Double Degree Program between University of Groningen, The Netherlands and Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia. She obtained Double Degree Master Program also in University of Groningen and Institut Teknologi Bandung. Previously, she gained her undergraduate degree in the Land Transportation Vocational Program at the Graduate School of Land Transportation, Indonesia. Besides her experiences in academics, she works in the Ministry of Transport of Indonesia, with her main responsibilities in the railways sector. In according to her background in governmental arena, she tries to bridge the academic context of transport infrastructure planning into the policy making process and practice, especially regarding Public Private Partnerships for transport infrastructure projects, related to spatial aspects and regional economic development.

Fika Novitasari (UG-ITB)

Equity in domestic water provision in Indonesia: the perception of the government and the potential role of community-based water management

Abstract: Equitable and universal access to water is a global commitment to provide domestic water for everyone. This target has become the responsibility to be achieved for every country, including Indonesia. As a developing country, Indonesia is facing a disparity in domestic water provision. Nevertheless, over time, the Indonesian government has developed and supported various alternative strategies to safeguard domestic water supply for the population, including different public-private partnership constructions and community-based water supply. Yet, many communities and areas still lack access to good quality safe water. Although the United Nations has set targets for equitable access to water, the definition of equity principles for domestic water supply goes beyond access and quality, emphasizing the relevance of representation and participation of marginalized communities in co-determining how to achieve equity targets. Therefore, by conducting a policy document analysis, alongside interviews with key informants, this paper seeks to explore the Indonesian government's perception of equitable (domestic) water access in Indonesia and their efforts to safeguard equity in domestic water management. In particular, the paper zooms in on community-based domestic water provision and its potential role in safeguarding equity. In line with UN's target of equitable access to water, the Indonesian government interprets this target by increasing access to clean water through piped water. This paper shows that the Indonesian government has tried to represent the poor and areas that do not have access to water by promoting a community-based domestic water supply program. This paper provides input for policy makers in Indonesia in considering equity concepts in domestic water management.

Keywords: equity; domestic water provision; government perception; community-based

Author: Fika Novitasari is a PhD researcher who obtained a double degree from The University of Groningen, The Netherlands and Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia. Formerly, she studied in the Master Program of Urban and Regional Planning with a specialization in infrastructure planning at ITB. After completing her master's program, she worked as a lecturer at the School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development, ITB - Cirebon Campus. She has experiences in research activities and community development in the last five years focused on urban infrastructure development, water governance, village infrastructures to support SDGs, and the integration of clean water infrastructure planning with spatial planning.

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Last modified:09 December 2022 11.10 a.m.