Untreated periodontal disease in Indonesian adolescents: Clinical and microbiological baseline data

Timmerman, MF., Van der Weijden, GA., Armand, S., Abbas, F., Winkel, EG., Van Winkelhoff, AJ. & Van der Velden, U., Mar-1998, In : Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 25, 3, p. 215-224 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

  • MF Timmerman
  • GA Van der Weijden
  • S Armand
  • F Abbas
  • EG Winkel
  • AJ Van Winkelhoff
  • U Van der Velden

At present, several risk factors for the initiation and progression of periodontitis have been identified. In order to investigate the role of various potential clinical and microbiological risk factors and indicators, a longitudinal study was initiated in a young population deprived from regular dental care. The present communication describes the baseline cross-sectional data obtained in 1987 in terms of the clinical periodontal condition and prevalence of periodontal bacteria in the oral cavity. All inhabitants in the age range 15-25 years of a village with approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on Western Java, Indonesia, were examined clinically and microbiologically. In total, 255 adolescents, comprising 130 males and 125 females participated in the study. Samples for bacteriological examination were taken from the gingiva, the dorsum of the tongue, and the saliva. Plaque index, bleeding upon probing, pocket depth, and attachment loss (AL) were scored on the approximal surfaces from the vestibular aspect of all teeth as well as the mid-vestibular and mid-lingual aspects of the Ramfjord teeth. Calculus was scored only on the 4 surfaces of the Ramfjord teeth. Following the clinical measurements, the deepest bleeding pocket with no clinical loss of attachment was sampled for microbiological examination. In addition, in 37 subjects a deep bleeding (greater than or equal to 4 mm) with at least 4 mm of attachment loss was sampled. Moderate periodontitis (max. AL 3-4 mm) was found in 26% of the population, advanced periodontitis (max. AL greater than or equal to 5 mm) in 8%, whereas 66% of the population showed no or minor periodontitis (max. AL 0-2 mm). Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was found in 57% of the population, Porphyromonas gingivalis in 87%, Prevotella intermedia and motile rods in all cases and spirochetes in 89%. P. gingivalis (66%), A. actinomycetemcomitans (37%) and spirochetes (63%) were, of all the sampled sites of the oral cavity, most frequently detected in pockets without attachment loss. Motile rods were most prevalent on the tongue and in the saliva (92% and 89%, respectively). A high prevalence of the investigated periodontal bacteria was detected both in the pockets without and with attachment loss. No significant association between the clinical periodontal parameters and the prevalence of the microorganisms was observed at a patient level. At a site level, both P. gingivalis and spirochetes were more prevalent in sites with attachment loss. The actual role of these putative periodontal pathogens may be elucidated more extensively, when longitudinal data on the present population become available.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-224
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Periodontology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar-1998



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