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The role of the anti-ageing protein Klotho in vascular physiology and pathophysiology

Mencke, R., Hillebrands, J-L. & NIGRAM Consortium, May-2017, In : Ageing Research Reviews. 35, p. 124-146 23 p.

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  • The role of the anti-ageing protein Klotho in vascular physiology and pathophysiology

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DOI

Klotho is an anti-ageing protein that functions in many pathways that govern ageing, like regulation of phosphate homeostasis, insulin signaling, and Wnt signaling. Klotho expression levels and levels in blood decline during ageing. The vascular phenotype of Klotho deficiency features medial calcification, intima hyperplasia, endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening, hypertension, and impaired angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, with characteristics similar to aged human arteries.

Klotho-deficient phenotypes can be prevented and rescued by Klotho gene expression or protein supplementation. High phosphate levels are likely to be directly pathogenic and are a prerequisite for medial calcification, but more important determinants are pathways that regulate cellular senescence, suggesting that deficiency of Klotho renders cells susceptible to phosphate toxicity. Overexpression of Klotho is shown to ameliorate medial calcification, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension.

Endogenous vascular Klotho expression is a controversial subject and, currently, no compelling evidence exists that supports the existence of vascular membrane-bound Klotho expression, as expressed in kidney. In vitro, Klotho has been shown to decrease oxidative stress and apoptosis in both SMCs and ECs, to reduce SMC calcification, to maintain the contractile SMC phenotype, and to prevent mu-calpain overactivation in ECs.

Klotho has many protective effects with regard to the vasculature and constitutes a very promising therapeutic target. The purpose of this review is to explore the etiology of the vascular phenotype of Klotho deficiency and the therapeutic potential of Klotho in vascular disease. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)124-146
Number of pages23
JournalAgeing Research Reviews
Volume35
Early online date27-Sep-2016
Publication statusPublished - May-2017

    Keywords

  • Klotho, Ageing, Vascular calcification, Endothelial dysfunction, Smooth muscle cells, Endothelial cells, CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE, SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE-RATS, GROWTH-FACTOR 23, SMOOTH-MUSCLE-CELLS, TRANSCRIPTS ENCODING MEMBRANE, AORTIC-VALVE CALCIFICATION, SOFT-TISSUE CALCIFICATION, ALPHA-KLOTHO, GENE-EXPRESSION, ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS

ID: 36007255