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The Role of High Frequency Dynamic Threshold (HiDT) Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Measurements in Colorectal Cancer Surveillance: A (Revisited) Hypothesis Paper

Grossmann, I., Verberne, C., De Bock, G., Havenga, K., Kema, I., Klaase, J., Renehan, A. & Wiggers, T., 2011, In : Cancers. 3, 2, p. 2302-2315 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Following curative treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC), 30% to 50% of patients will develop recurrent disease. For CRC there are several lines of evidence supporting the hypothesis that early detection of metachronous disease offers a second opportunity for cure. This paper revisits the potential role of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in follow-up. A comprehensive review of the literature (1978-2008) demonstrates that the initial promise of serum CEA as an effective surveillance tool has been tarnished through perpetuation of poorly designed studies. Specific limitations included: testing CEA as only an 'add-on' diagnostic tool; lack of standardization of threshold values; use of static thresholds; too low measurement frequency. Major changes in localizing imaging techniques and treatment of metastatic CRC further cause a decrease of clinical applicability of past trial outcomes. In 1982, Staab hypothesized that the optimal benefit of serum CEA as a surveillance tool is through high-frequency triage using a dynamic threshold (HiDT). Evidence supporting this hypothesis was found in the biochemical characteristics of serum CEA and retrospective studies showing the superior predictive value of a dynamic threshold. A multi-centred randomized phase III study optimizing the usage of HiDT against resectability of recurrent disease is commencing recruitment in the Netherlands.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2302-2315
Number of pages14
JournalCancers
Volume3
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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