The Rate of Glucose Appearance Is Related to Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Responses in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Stable Isotope Studies

Boers, H. M., Alssema, M., Mela, D. J., Peters, H. P. F., Vonk, R. J. & Priebe, M. G., Nov-2019, In : Journal of Nutrition. 149, 11, p. 1896-1903 8 p.

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  • The Rate of Glucose Appearance Is Related to Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Responses in Adults

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  • Hanny M. Boers
  • Marjan Alssema
  • David J. Mela
  • Harry P. F. Peters
  • Roel J. Vonk
  • Marion G. Priebe

Background: It is often assumed that lower postprandial glucose (PPG) and insulin (PPI) responses are induced by slower glucose influx from the gut (e.g., by delayed carbohydrate digestion). However, changes in the rate of appearance of glucose in the peripheral circulation [rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE)] may be accompanied by changes in endogenous glucose production (EGP) and the rate of disappearance of total glucose into tissues (RdT). The quantitative relationships between reductions in RaE and PPG/PPI levels are unclear.

Objectives: The objective was to perform a meta-analysis to quantify the effect of changes in RaE on changes in PPG and PPI levels (primary) and EGP and RdT (secondary).

Methods: We systematically searched the Scopus, Medline, and Cochrane library databases through 10 January 2019 for randomized, controlled, carbohydrate-rich interventions that aimed to reduce RaE in humans, measured using dual or triple stable isotope methods. The 2-h net incremental AUCs for all variables were extracted or calculated. Relationships between RaE and outcomes were quantified by weighted regression analyses.

Results: There were 12 articles, including 17 comparisons, that satisfied the inclusion criteria. The subjects were mainly men (60%), with age and BMI ranges of 18-40 y and 20.0-27.5 kg/m(2), respectively. A 10% reduction in RaE was associated with reductions in PPG levels, PPI levels, and the RdT of 7% (95% CI: 2%, 12%; P = 0.010), 8% (95% CI: 2%, 13%; P = 0.012), and 11% (95% CI: 4%, 17%; P = 0.005), respectively, but was not significantly associated with a change in EGP (13%; 95% CI: -7%, 33%; P = 0.176). All fluxes together explained 70% and 26% of the variances in PPG and PPI levels, respectively.

Conclusions: In adults, reducing glucose RaE by diet is associated with significant reductions in PPG levels, PPI levels, and the rate of glucose disposal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1896-1903
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov-2019


  • glucose fluxes, glucose kinetics, pasta, bread, rice, cereals, biscuits, carbohydrate digestion, weighted regression, GLYCEMIC RESPONSE, KINETICS, HEALTH, GLP-1, METABOLISM, MODULATION, PREVENTION, TURNOVER, INDEX, SIZE

ID: 118666205