The rate of drug particle detachment from carrier crystals in an air classifier-based inhaler

de Boer, A. H., Hagedoorn, P., Gjaltema, D., Lambregts, D., Irngartinger, M. & Frijlink, H. W., Dec-2004, In : Pharmaceutical Research. 21, 12, p. 2158-2166 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Purpose. To investigate the rate with which drug particles are detached from carrier particles in adhesive mixtures when the action of the separation forces during inhalation is sustained by circulation of the powder dose in an air classifier. Methods. Residual drug on retained carrier particles from different adhesive mixture compositions has been analyzed after different circulation times in the classifier (0.5 to 6 s). For calculation of the detachment rate within the first 0.5 s of inhalation, the optical concentration of the aerosol from the classifier has been measured with laser diffraction technique. Results. Drug detachment from carrier crystals during inhalation increases not only with the flow rate but also with the time during which the action of the separation forces (at a constant flow rate) is sustained. The detachment rate at the same flow rate varies with the carrier size fraction and carrier payload and is clearly highest within the first 0.5 s of inhalation. Conclusions. Drug detachment from carrier approaches first-order reaction within the first half-second of inhalation. But at longer circulation times in the classifier, the ratio of removal to adhesive forces decreases dramatically. To increase the detached fraction of drug during inhalation at a constant flow rate, a short residence time for the powder in the de-agglomerator between 0.5 and 2 s is desired. © 2004 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2158-2166
Number of pages9
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2004


  • Adhesive mixtures, Air classifier, Carrier residue, Dry powder inhaler with residence time, Particle detachment rate, budesonide, drug carrier, aerosol, article, circulation, concentration response, crystal structure, drug delivery system, drug formulation, drug release, exercise, flow rate, force, laser diffraction, powder inhaler, priority journal, sustained drug release

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