THE IMPLANT INFECTION PARADOX: WHY DO SOME SUCCEED WHEN OTHERS FAIL? OPINION AND DISCUSSION PAPERYue, C., Zhao, B., Ren, Y., Kuijer, R., van der Mei, H. C., Busscher, H. J. & Rochford, E. T. J., 2015, In : European cells & materials. 29, p. 303-313 11 p.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review
Biomaterial-implants are frequently used to restore function and form of human anatomy. However, the presence of implanted biomaterials dramatically elevates infection risk. Paradoxically, dental-implants placed in a bacteria-laden milieu experience moderate failure-rates, due to infection (0.0-1.1 %), similar to the ones of joint-arthroplasties placed in a near-sterile environment (0.1-1.3 %). Transcutaneous bone-fixation pins breach the immune-barrier of the epidermis, exposing underlying sterile-tissue to an unsterile external environment. In contrast to dental-implants, also placed in a highly unsterile environment, these pins give rise to relatively high infection-associated failure-rates of up to 23.0 %. Herein, we attempt to identify causes as to why dental-implants so often succeed, where others fail. The major part of all implants considered are metal-made, with similar surface-finishes. Material choice was therefore discarded as underlying the paradox. Antimicrobial activity of saliva has also been suggested as a cause for the success of dental-implants, but was discarded because saliva is the implant-site-fluid from which viable bacteria adhere. Crevicular fluid was discarded as it is largely analogous to serum. Instead, we attribute the relative success of dental-implants to (1) ability of oral tissues to heal rapidly in the continuous presence of commensal bacteria and opportunistic pathogens, and (2) tolerance of the oral immune-system. Inability of local tissue to adhere, spread and grow in presence of bacteria and an intolerant immune-system are identified as the likely main causes explaining the susceptibility of other implants to infection-associated failure. In conclusion, it is the authors' belief that new anti-infection strategies for a wide range of biomaterial-implants may be derived from the relative success of dental-implants.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||European cells & materials|
|Publication status||Published - 2015|
- Implant infection, immune responses, host pathogens, infection risk, biofilms, PROSTHETIC JOINT INFECTION, TOTAL HIP-ARTHROPLASTY, CREVICULAR FLUID, ORAL MUCOSAL, COMPLICATION RATES, LANGERHANS CELLS, CUTANEOUS WOUNDS, DENDRITIC CELLS, REGISTER, SKIN