The Effect of Various Doses of Phenylalanine Supplementation on Blood Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Concentrations in Tyrosinemia Type 1 Patients

van Ginkel, W. G., van Reemst, H. E., Kienstra, N. S., Daly, A., Rodenburg, I. L., MacDonald, A., Burgerhof, J. G. M., de Blaauw, P., van de Krogt, J., Santra, S., Heiner-Fokkema, M. R. & van Spronsen, F. J., Nov-2019, In : Nutrients. 11, 11, 11 p., 2816.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) treatment with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluormethyl-benzyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) and a phenylalanine-tyrosine restricted diet is associated with low phenylalanine concentrations. Phenylalanine supplementation is prescribed without comprehensive consideration about its effect on metabolic control. We investigated the effect of phenylalanine supplementation on bloodspot phenylalanine, tyrosine, NTBC and succinylacetone. Eleven TT1 patients received 0, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day phenylalanine supplementation with the phenylalanine-tyrosine free L-amino acid supplements. Bloodspots were collected before breakfast, midday and evening meal. Differences between study periods, sample times and days within a study period were studied using (generalized) linear mixed model analyses. Twenty and 40 mg/kg/day phenylalanine supplementation prevented daytime phenylalanine decreases (p = 0.05) and most low phenylalanine concentrations, while tyrosine concentrations increased (p <0.001). Furthermore, NTBC and succinylacetone concentrations did not differ between study periods. To conclude, 20 mg/kg/day phenylalanine supplementation can prevent most low phenylalanine concentrations without increasing tyrosine to concentrations above the target range or influencing NTBC and succinylacetone concentrations, while 40 mg/kg/day increased tyrosine concentrations to values above the targeted range. Additionally, this study showed that the effect of phenylalanine supplementation, and a possible phenylalanine deficiency, should be assessed using pre-midday meal blood samples that could be combined with an overnight fasted sample when in doubt.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2816
Number of pages11
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov-2019


  • tyrosinemia type 1, phenylalanine, supplementation, tyrosine, NTBC, TRYPTOPHAN, MEN

Download statistics

No data available

ID: 107810278