The BSID-II-NL for assessing children with specific impairments

Ruiter, S. A. J., 2007, s.n.. 161 p.

Research output: ThesisThesis fully internal (DIV)Academic

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  • Selma Anne José Ruiter
Abstract In this doctoral thesis the Dutch standardization and validation of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development – Second Edition (BSID-II-NL) and its adapted versions for use with children with specific impairmens are presented. The BSID-II-NL is a standardized and norm-referenced instrument to evaluate the general development of a child between the (developmental) age of 1 – 42 months. The test consists of a Mental scale, a Motor scale and Behavior Rating scale. To facilitate appropriate and fair assessment for children with specific disabilities, we developed adapted versions of the BSID-II-NL. By adapting test procedures, item instructions and/or play materials for specific groups of children, the test facilitates more adequate decision making in providing the right support, intervention or education. The research described in this thesis resulted in a Dutch translation and standardization of the BSID-II, adapted test procedures for using the test with prematurely born infants, a non-verbal version for children with hearing loss and/or speech and language problems, a low vision version for children with visual impairment and a low motor version for using the test with children with motor impairment. The main research question was: Is the Dutch translation and adaptation of the BSID-II a valid instrument for individual developmental assessment in general and for children with specific impairments in particular? This question is answered, first, by analyzing results from validity and reliability studies for the BSID-II-NL for children from the standard population (norm population) and second, by analysing the value and validity of adapted versions of the BSID-II-NL for use with children with specific impairments. Account is given of research into the limitations of the BSID-II-NL for use with special groups of children and possible solutions in the form of constructing adapted versions of this instrument. In chapter 2 the construction, standardization and psychometric characteristics of the BSID-II-NL are described. The BSID-II-NL contains of a translation of the original (US) materials and a Dutch standardization for the Mental, Motor and Behavior Rating Scale. The Dutch version was made in such a way as to preserve the original version as closely as possible. Only two important adaptations were made: a broadening of the basal and ceiling level and a different factor structure of the Behavior Rating Scale. The norms of the three scales are based on data of 1909 Dutch children. Norm tables are constructed through a method that uses a fit procedure based on the score differentiation of all age groups together. This method produces a regression equation that enables the construction of the printed norm tables per month, but allows also for a more precise conversion of raw score into day norms (via a computerized program). Validity and reliability studies proved the BSID-II-NL to be an empirical sound instrument. Chapter 3 discusses the influence of the BSID-II(-NL) administration procedure on the assessment of premature infants. Two suggestions for improvement are given. First the Dutch version of the BSID-II is discussed and how it may solve the problems resulting from the use of items sets and the adjusted basal and ceiling rules. Second, an alternative administration procedure is put forward, that allows the use of norm tables, but takes into account the deviating developmental pattern of premature infants. The non-verbal version of the BSID-II-NL is presented in chapter 4. The non-verbal version contains a selection of the items of the original Mental scale and, where needed, adapted instructions are provided. These adaptations consist of extra emphasis on natural gestures or pantomime instructions. Separate norm tables were developed for the age range of 12 – 30 months. To further examine the validity of the BSID-II-NL NV, a comparative study was conducted between the standard and non-verbal version of the Mental scale of the BSID-II-NL with a group children with serious developmental delay. The results support the applicability and validity of the non-verbal version. The adapted version of the BSID-II-NL for assessing children with visual impairment (BSID-II-NL Low Vision) is described in chapter 5. Test procedures, item instructions and play material of the Mental and Motor scale are adapted for a more appropriate use of the test with this specific group of children. The purpose was to preserve the original item content and degree of difficulty. By leaving the items essentially unchanged, the standard norms are still applicable to a ‘low vision’ administration in a valid way. This chapter describes the study that has produced an experimental version of the BSID-II-NL Low Vision for the age range of 30 – 42 months. A pilot study was conducted to find out how appropriate the adaptations are for children with low vision and to provide us with a first impression of the validity of the BSID-II-NL Low Vision. Chapter 6 presents the BSID-II-NL Low Motor, an adaptation of the BSID-II-NL for a more appropriate use of the test with children with motor impairments. We adapted test procedures, item instructions and play material of the Mental scale for the age range of 12 – 42 months. Results from the validity study that are described in this chapter, support the assumption that low motor adaptations only compensate for the child’s motor impairment. Item content and degree of difficulty of the items did not change significantly, so that the standard norm tables are still applicable when administering a Low Motor version of the BSID-II-NL. The Standard and Low Motor version of the BSID-II-NL were administered to twenty children experiencing normal development and 45 children with low motor, within a period of two weeks. Children with low motor score significantly higher on the Low motor version compared to the Standard version. No significant difference was found for the group of normal children. In chapter 7 the main research question is answered and general limitations, and implications for future research are discussed. Although more research is needed, results from the studies described in this thesis, provide us with empirical support for the conclusion that the Dutch translation and adaptation of the BSID-II is a valid instrument for individual developmental assessment in general and for children with specific impairments in particular.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Van der Meulen, B.F., Supervisor, External person
  • Nakken, H., Supervisor, External person
  • Lutje Spelberg, H.C., Co-supervisor, External person
  • Vlaskamp, Carla, Assessment committee
  • Geert ,van, Paul, Assessment committee
  • Tavecchio, L.W.C., Assessment committee, External person
Award date18-Jan-2007
Print ISBNs90-5963-024-6
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • Testconstructie , Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Proefschriften (v, Bayley Scales of Infant Development - tweede editie - Nederl, psychometrie, 77.55 psychologie van kind en kleuter

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