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The Acute and Early Effects of Whole-Brain Irradiation on Glial Activation, Brain Metabolism, and Behavior: a Positron Emission Tomography Study

Parente, A., de Vries, E. F., van Waarde, A., Ioannou, M., Luijk, van, P., Langendijk, J. A., Dierckx, R. & Doorduin, J., 12-Feb-2020, In : Molecular Imaging and Biology. 9 p.

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Purpose Radiotherapy is a frequently applied treatment modality for brain tumors. Concomitant irradiation of normal brain tissue can induce various physiological responses. The aim of this study was to investigate whether acute and early-delayed effects of brain irradiation on glial activation and brain metabolism can be detected with positron emission tomography (PET) and whether these effects are correlated with behavioral changes. Procedures Rats underwent 0-, 10-, or 25-Gy whole-brain irradiation. At 3 and 31 days post irradiation, 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-[C-11]methyl-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide ([C-11]PK11195) and 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-d-glucose ([F-18]FDG) PET scans were acquired to detect changes in glial activation (neuroinflammation) and glucose metabolism, respectively. The open-field test (OFT) was performed on days 6 and 27 to assess behavioral changes. Results Twenty-five-gray-irradiated rats showed higher [C-11]PK11195 uptake in most brain regions than controls on day 3 (striatum, hypothalamus, accumbens, septum p <0.05), although some brain regions had lower uptake (cerebellum, parietal association/retrosplenial visual cortex, frontal association/motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, p <0.05). On day 31, several brain regions in 25-Gy-irradiated rats still showed significantly higher [C-11]PK11195 uptake than controls and 10-Gy-irradiated group (p <0.05). Within-group analysis showed that [C-11]PK11195 uptake in individual brain regions of 25-Gy treated rats remained stable or slightly increased between days 3 and 31. In contrast, a significant reduction (p <0.05) in tracer uptake between days 3 and 31 was found in all brain areas of controls and 10-Gy-irradiated animals. Moreover, 10-Gy treatment led to a significantly higher [F-18]FDG uptake on day 3 (p <0.05). [F-18]FDG uptake decreased between days 3 and 31 in all groups; no significant differences between groups were observed anymore on day 31, except for increased uptake in the hypothalamus in the 10-Gy group. The OFT did not show any significant differences between groups. Conclusions Non-invasive PET imaging indicated that brain irradiation induces neuroinflammation and a metabolic flare, without causing acute or early-delayed behavioral changes.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular Imaging and Biology
Early online dateFeb-2020
Publication statusPublished - 12-Feb-2020

    Keywords

  • Brain irradiation, Neuroinflammation, Microglia activation, Brain metabolism, Brain imaging, Behavior, PET imaging, CEREBRAL GLUCOSE-METABOLISM, LONG-TERM SURVIVORS, COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT, CRANIAL IRRADIATION, RAT MODEL, IN-VIVO, RADIATION, NEUROINFLAMMATION, MICROGLIA, TRANSPLANTATION

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