Targeting online display ads: Choosing their frequency and spacing

Foersch, S. & de Haan, E., Dec-2018, In : International Journal of Research in Marketing. 35, 4, p. 661-672 12 p.

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  • Targeting online display ads

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With real time bidding, advertisers can decide how often (ad frequency) and in what time interval (ad recency) to show an ad to a specific user. Ads shown often and in quick succession might increase brand and ad recognition on the one hand but might annoy users on the other hand. These recognition and annoyance effects, in turn, can have opposing consequences for click-through rates (CTRs). Guided by theory and previous studies, we examine how the frequency (high vs. low) and the recency (small vs. large time intervals) of ad impressions relates to a banner's CTR and whether this is moderated by the campaign type (diverse or not), the brand's advertising expenditure (high vs. low), and the type of industry (selling durable vs. non-durable goods). To do so, we use a large data set containing information on 5.8 bn ad impressions and 1.8 m clicks delivered for 158 different advertisers from 25 industries. We show that higher ad frequency and higher ad recency relate to a lower CTRs, especially when having a less diverse campaign, for brands which are spending more on advertising, and, to some extent, for firms selling durables. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)661-672
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Research in Marketing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Banner advertising, Click-through rate, Online advertising, Online targeting, Real-time bidding, ADVERTISING REPETITION, ATTRIBUTION, CLICKSTREAM, PURCHASE, WORK

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