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Severity of Virilization Is Associated with Cosmetic Appearance and Sexual Function in Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: A Cross-Sectional Study

van der Zwan, Y. G., Janssen, E. H. C. C., Callens, N., Wolffenbuttel, K. P., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., van den Berg, M., Drop, S. L. S., Dessens, A. B., Beerendonk, C. & Dutch Study Grp DSD, Mar-2013, In : Journal of Sexual Medicine. 10, 3, p. 866-875 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

  • Yvonne G. van der Zwan
  • Eefje H. C. C. Janssen
  • Nina Callens
  • Katja P. Wolffenbuttel
  • Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis
  • Marjan van den Berg
  • Stenvert L. S. Drop
  • Arianne B. Dessens
  • Catharina Beerendonk
  • Dutch Study Grp DSD

Introduction. Women with the classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are born with different degrees of virilization of the external genitalia. Feminizing surgery is often performed in childhood to change the appearance of the genitalia and to enable penilevaginal intercourse later in life. There are suggestions that this affects sexual functioning. Aims. The aim is to study the anatomical, surgical, cosmetic, and psychosexual outcomes in women with CAH. Methods. Forty women with CAH, aged over 15 years, from two referral centers for management of Disorders of Sex Development in the Netherlands were included. Physical and functional status were assessed by a gynecological interview and examination. Sexual functioning was assessed with the Female Sexual Function Index and Female Sexual Distress ScaleRevised scales and compared with a reference group. Mean Outcome Measures. Surgery performed, anatomy, cosmetic score, sexual function and distress. Results. Thirty-six of the 40 women had undergone feminizing surgery; 25 women (69%) underwent more than one operation. Resurgery was performed in seven of the 13 (54%) women who had had a single-stage procedure. Anatomical assessment showed reasonable outcomes. Multiple linear regression showed that only level of confluence had a significant effect on cosmetic outcome, the impact depending on the number of surgeries performed. Cosmetic evaluations did not differ between the women and the gynecologists. Only 20 women had experience of intercourse. Eight women reported dyspareunia; seven women reported urinary incontinence. The women's perceived sexual functioning was less satisfactory than in the reference group, and they reported more sexual distress. Conclusion. The level of confluence was the major determinant for cosmetic outcome; the impact depended on the number of surgeries performed. Fifty-four percent of the women required resurgery after a single-stage procedure in childhood. Anatomical assessment showed reasonable outcomes. The women evaluated their sexual functioning and functional outcome less favorable than the reference group, and they experienced less often sexual intercourse. van der Zwan YG, Janssen EHCC, Callens N, Wolffenbuttel KP, Cohen-Kettenis PT, van den Berg M, Drop SLS, Dessens AB, Beerendonk C. Severity of virilization is associated with cosmetic appearance and sexual function in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: A cross-sectional study. J Sex Med 2013;10:866875.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)866-875
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Sexual Medicine
Volume10
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar-2013

    Keywords

  • CAH, Outcome, Sexual Function, Female Genital Self-Image, Anatomy, Surgery, DISTRESS SCALE FSDS, FUNCTION INDEX FSFI, 21-HYDROXYLASE DEFICIENCY, FEMINIZING GENITOPLASTY, AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA, INTERSEX CONDITIONS, ANDROGEN EXCESS, VALIDATION, MANAGEMENT, SAMPLE

ID: 5808417