Publication

Salivary cortisol levels and the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders

Vreeburg, S. A., Hoogendijk, W. J. G., DeRijk, R. H., van Dyck, R., Smit, J. H., Zitman, F. G. & Penninx, B., Sep-2013, In : Psychoneuroendocrinology. 38, 9, p. 1494-1502 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

APA

Vreeburg, S. A., Hoogendijk, W. J. G., DeRijk, R. H., van Dyck, R., Smit, J. H., Zitman, F. G., & Penninx, B. (2013). Salivary cortisol levels and the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(9), 1494-1502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.12.017

Author

Vreeburg, Sophie A. ; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G. ; DeRijk, Roel H. ; van Dyck, Richard ; Smit, Johannes H. ; Zitman, Frans G. ; Penninx, Brenda. / Salivary cortisol levels and the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. In: Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013 ; Vol. 38, No. 9. pp. 1494-1502.

Harvard

Vreeburg, SA, Hoogendijk, WJG, DeRijk, RH, van Dyck, R, Smit, JH, Zitman, FG & Penninx, B 2013, 'Salivary cortisol levels and the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders', Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1494-1502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.12.017

Standard

Salivary cortisol levels and the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. / Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; DeRijk, Roel H.; van Dyck, Richard; Smit, Johannes H.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda.

In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol. 38, No. 9, 09.2013, p. 1494-1502.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Vancouver

Vreeburg SA, Hoogendijk WJG, DeRijk RH, van Dyck R, Smit JH, Zitman FG et al. Salivary cortisol levels and the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013 Sep;38(9):1494-1502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.12.017


BibTeX

@article{59142ef501ab41cab03053e3144d310b,
title = "Salivary cortisol levels and the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders",
abstract = "Introduction: Depression and anxiety disorders have been associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. However, lower cortisol levels have also been observed in depressed patients. Whether cortisol level predicts the course of these disorders has not been examined in detail. We examined whether salivary cortisol indicators predict the 2-year course of depression and anxiety disorders.Methods: Longitudinal data are obtained from 837 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, with a DSM-IV based depressive and/or anxiety disorder at baseline. At baseline, seven saliva samples were obtained, including the 1-h cortisol awakening response, evening cortisol level and a 0.5 mg dexamethasone suppression test. At follow-up, DSM-IV based diagnostic interviews and Life Chart Interview integrating diagnostic and symptom trajectories over 2 years were administered to determine an unfavorable course.Results: 41.5% of the respondents had a 2-year unfavorable course trajectory without remission longer than 3 months. Adjusted analyses showed that a tower awakening response was associated with an unfavorable course (RR = 0.83, p = 0.03). No associations were found between evening cortisol or cortisol suppression after dexamethasone ingestion and an unfavorable course trajectory.Conclusions: Among patients with depressive or anxiety disorders, a lower cortisol awakening response - which may be indicative of underlying exhaustion of the HPA axis predicted an unfavorable course trajectory. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "HPA axis, Salivary cortisol, Depressive disorder, Anxiety disorder, Course, PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS, UNDER-THE-CURVE, MAJOR DEPRESSION, AWAKENING RESPONSE, PANIC DISORDER, HPA-AXIS, HIPPOCAMPAL VOLUME, GENERAL-POPULATION, CHRONIC STRESS, HORMONE TEST",
author = "Vreeburg, {Sophie A.} and Hoogendijk, {Witte J. G.} and DeRijk, {Roel H.} and {van Dyck}, Richard and Smit, {Johannes H.} and Zitman, {Frans G.} and Brenda Penninx",
year = "2013",
month = sep,
doi = "10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.12.017",
language = "English",
volume = "38",
pages = "1494--1502",
journal = "Psychoneuroendocrinology",
issn = "0306-4530",
publisher = "PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD",
number = "9",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Salivary cortisol levels and the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders

AU - Vreeburg, Sophie A.

AU - Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.

AU - DeRijk, Roel H.

AU - van Dyck, Richard

AU - Smit, Johannes H.

AU - Zitman, Frans G.

AU - Penninx, Brenda

PY - 2013/9

Y1 - 2013/9

N2 - Introduction: Depression and anxiety disorders have been associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. However, lower cortisol levels have also been observed in depressed patients. Whether cortisol level predicts the course of these disorders has not been examined in detail. We examined whether salivary cortisol indicators predict the 2-year course of depression and anxiety disorders.Methods: Longitudinal data are obtained from 837 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, with a DSM-IV based depressive and/or anxiety disorder at baseline. At baseline, seven saliva samples were obtained, including the 1-h cortisol awakening response, evening cortisol level and a 0.5 mg dexamethasone suppression test. At follow-up, DSM-IV based diagnostic interviews and Life Chart Interview integrating diagnostic and symptom trajectories over 2 years were administered to determine an unfavorable course.Results: 41.5% of the respondents had a 2-year unfavorable course trajectory without remission longer than 3 months. Adjusted analyses showed that a tower awakening response was associated with an unfavorable course (RR = 0.83, p = 0.03). No associations were found between evening cortisol or cortisol suppression after dexamethasone ingestion and an unfavorable course trajectory.Conclusions: Among patients with depressive or anxiety disorders, a lower cortisol awakening response - which may be indicative of underlying exhaustion of the HPA axis predicted an unfavorable course trajectory. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

AB - Introduction: Depression and anxiety disorders have been associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. However, lower cortisol levels have also been observed in depressed patients. Whether cortisol level predicts the course of these disorders has not been examined in detail. We examined whether salivary cortisol indicators predict the 2-year course of depression and anxiety disorders.Methods: Longitudinal data are obtained from 837 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, with a DSM-IV based depressive and/or anxiety disorder at baseline. At baseline, seven saliva samples were obtained, including the 1-h cortisol awakening response, evening cortisol level and a 0.5 mg dexamethasone suppression test. At follow-up, DSM-IV based diagnostic interviews and Life Chart Interview integrating diagnostic and symptom trajectories over 2 years were administered to determine an unfavorable course.Results: 41.5% of the respondents had a 2-year unfavorable course trajectory without remission longer than 3 months. Adjusted analyses showed that a tower awakening response was associated with an unfavorable course (RR = 0.83, p = 0.03). No associations were found between evening cortisol or cortisol suppression after dexamethasone ingestion and an unfavorable course trajectory.Conclusions: Among patients with depressive or anxiety disorders, a lower cortisol awakening response - which may be indicative of underlying exhaustion of the HPA axis predicted an unfavorable course trajectory. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KW - HPA axis

KW - Salivary cortisol

KW - Depressive disorder

KW - Anxiety disorder

KW - Course

KW - PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS

KW - UNDER-THE-CURVE

KW - MAJOR DEPRESSION

KW - AWAKENING RESPONSE

KW - PANIC DISORDER

KW - HPA-AXIS

KW - HIPPOCAMPAL VOLUME

KW - GENERAL-POPULATION

KW - CHRONIC STRESS

KW - HORMONE TEST

U2 - 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.12.017

DO - 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.12.017

M3 - Article

VL - 38

SP - 1494

EP - 1502

JO - Psychoneuroendocrinology

JF - Psychoneuroendocrinology

SN - 0306-4530

IS - 9

ER -

ID: 5967059