Safe use of proton pump inhibitors in patients with cirrhosisWeersink, R. A., Bouma, M., Burger, D. M., Drenth, J. P. H., Froukje Harkes-Idzinga, S., Hunfeld, N. G. M., Metselaar, H. J., Monster-Simons, M. H., van Putten, S. A. W., Taxis, K. & Borgsteede, S. D., Aug-2018, In : British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 84, 8, p. 1806-1820 15 p.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review
AimsProton pump inhibitors (PPIs) belong to the most frequently used drugs, also in patients with cirrhosis. PPIs are extensively metabolized by the liver, but practice guidance on prescribing in cirrhosis is lacking. We aim to develop practical guidance on the safe use of PPIs in patients with cirrhosis.
MethodsA systematic literature search identified studies on the safety (i.e. adverse events) and pharmacokinetics of PPIs in cirrhotic patients. This evidence and data from the product information was reviewed by an expert panel who classified drugs as safe; no additional risks known; additional risks known; unsafe; or unknown. Guidance was aimed at the oral use of PPIs and categorized by the severity of cirrhosis, using the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) classification.
ResultsA total of 69 studies were included. Esomeprazole, omeprazole and rabeprazole were classified as having no additional risks known'. A reduction in maximum dose of omeprazole and rabeprazole is recommended for CTP A and B patients. For patients with CTP C cirrhosis, the only PPI advised is esomeprazole at a maximum dosage of 20mg per day. Pantoprazole and lansoprazole were classified as unsafe because of 4- to 8-fold increased exposure. The use of PPIs in cirrhotic patients has been associated with the development of infections and hepatic encephalopathy and should be carefully considered.
ConclusionsWe suggest using esomeprazole, omeprazole or rabeprazole in patients with CTP A or B cirrhosis and only esomeprazole in patients with CTP C. Pharmacokinetic changes are also important to consider when prescribing PPIs to vulnerable, cirrhotic patients.
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology|
|Early online date||24-Apr-2018|
|Publication status||Published - Aug-2018|
- drug safety, evidence-based medicine, hepatology, liver, SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS, HELICOBACTER-PYLORI ERADICATION, GASTRIC-ACID SUPPRESSION, VARICEAL BAND LIGATION, CHRONIC LIVER-DISEASE, HEPATIC-ENCEPHALOPATHY, CONTROLLED-TRIAL, DOSE ADJUSTMENT, PHARMACOKINETICS, OMEPRAZOLE