Retrospective public health impact of a quadrivalent influenza vaccine in the United States

Crepey, P., de Boer, P. T., Postma, M. J. & Pitman, R., Aug-2015, In : Influenza and other respiratory viruses. 9, S1, p. 39-46 8 p.

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IntroductionVaccination is an effective preventive strategy against influenza. However, current trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain only one of the two influenza B lineages that circulate each year. Vaccine mismatches are frequent because predicting which one will predominate is difficult. Recently licensed quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) containing the two B lineages should address this issue. Our study estimates their impact by assessing what would have been the US public health benefit of routinely vaccinating with QIV in 2000-2013.

MethodsWe developed a dynamic compartmental model that accounts for interactions between influenza B lineages (natural or vaccine-induced) and simulates the multiyear influenza dynamics for 2000-2013. Age-structured population dynamics, vaccine efficacy (VE) per strain, and weekly ramp-up of vaccination coverage are modeled. Sensitivity analyses were performed on VE, duration of immunity, and levels of vaccine-induced cross-protection between B lineages.

ResultsAssuming a cross-protection of 70% of the VE of the matched vaccine, the model predicts 16% more B lineage cases prevented by QIV. Elderly (65years) and young seniors (50-64years) benefit most from QIV, with 21% and 18% reductions in B lineage cases. Reducing cross-protection to 50%, 30%, and 0% of the VE of the matched vaccine improves the relative benefit of QIV to 25%, 30%, and 34% less B lineage cases.

ConclusionUsing a dynamic retrospective framework with real-life vaccine mismatch, our analysis shows that QIV routine vaccination in the United States has the potential to substantially reduce the number of influenza infections, even with relatively high estimates of TIV-induced cross-protection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-46
Number of pages8
JournalInfluenza and other respiratory viruses
Issue numberS1
Publication statusPublished - Aug-2015


  • Dynamic model, influenza, quadrivalent influenza vaccine, trivalent influenza vaccine, vaccine effectiveness, vaccines, INFECTIOUS-DISEASES, IMMUNOGENICITY, SAFETY, ADULTS, EFFICACY, CHILDREN, SPREAD

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