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Rate-dependent effects of the class III antiarrhythmic drug almokalant on refractoriness in the pig

Wiesfeld, ACP., DeLangen, CDJ., Crijns, HJGM., Bel, KJ., Hillege, HL., Wesseling, H. & Lie, KI., Apr-1996, In : Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 27, 4, p. 594-600 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

  • ACP Wiesfeld
  • CDJ DeLangen
  • HJGM Crijns
  • KJ Bel
  • HL Hillege
  • H Wesseling
  • KI Lie

The electrophysiologic effects of intravenously administered almokalant, a new class III antiarrhythmic drug, in 7 isoflurane-anesthetized pigs after low and high dose were investigated. Low-dose almokalant included bolus infusion of 0.05 mu mol/kg/min for 5 min followed by a continuous infusion of 0.0025 mu mol/kg/min for 40 min. Thereafter, a high dose of 0.2 mu mol/kg/min for 5 min and 0.01 mu mol/kg/min for 40 min was given. PR, QRS, AH, and HV intervals did not change during almokalant administration. The QT interval increased dose dependently from 337 +/- 17 to 442 +/- 20 ms at high dose (p <0.05). Atrial refractory periods (AERP) were prolonged dose dependently at a 500-ms pacing cycle length from 178 +/- 15 at baseline to 227 +/- 27 and 253 +/- 23 ms during low- and high-dose almokalant infusion, respectively. For pacing cycle lengths of 400 and 300 ms, these values were 180 +/- 11, 207 +/- 25, and 259 +/- 34 and 157 +/- 12, 193 +/- 21, and 234 +/- 28 ms, respectively. At a pacing cycle length of 500 ms, mean ventricular effective refractory period (VERP) was 270 +/- 25 ms as compared with 306 +/- 24 and 337 +/- 17 during low and high dose, respectively. A similar pattern of VERP changes during both low- and high-dose infusion was noted at the shorter pacing cycle lengths, with an increase from 240 +/- 23 to 274 +/- 22 and 279 +/- 24 ms during a 400-ms cycle length and from 210 +/- 17 to 235 +/- 19 and 234 +/- 21 ms during a 300-ms cycle length. The ratio of the VERP and ventricular monophasic action potential duration (VAPD) did not change significantly. The Wenckebach cycle length increased by 36 +/- 36 and 83 +/- 37 ms with low- and high-dose almokalant infusion, respectively. The percent increase of AERP at pacing cycle lengths of 500, 400, and 300 ms during high-dose almokalant was 42, 44, and 49%, respectively; these increases for VERP were 25, 16, and 11%, respectively. In conclusion, prolongation of refractoriness by almokalant was more pronounced at the atrial than the ventricular level. Prolongation of refractoriness was maintained at short pacing cycle lengths especially in the atrium, indicating absence of reverse-use dependence of almokalant in the porcine heart. The marked atrial effects, paralleled by atrioventricular conduction slowing, and the absence of reverse use-dependence all contribute to the feasibility of use of almokalant, in particular in the treatment of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)594-600
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Volume27
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr-1996

    Keywords

  • almokalant, pigs, refractory periods, use-dependency, RECTIFIER K+-CURRENT, ISOLATED CARDIAC-MUSCLE, TORSADES-DE-POINTES, POTASSIUM CHANNEL, VENTRICULAR-TACHYCARDIA, MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION, PURKINJE-FIBERS, BLOCK, MYOCYTES, AGENTS

ID: 6461167