Radiosurgical, neurosurgical, or no intervention for cerebral cavernous malformations: A decision analysis

Rinkel, L. A., Salman, R. A-S., Rinkel, G. J. E. & Greving, J. P., Dec-2019, In : International Journal of Stroke. 14, 9, p. 939-945 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

  • Leon A. Rinkel
  • Rustam Al-Shahi Salman
  • Gabriel J. E. Rinkel
  • Jacoba P. Greving

Introduction We aimed to evaluate the preferred treatment strategy for patients with symptomatic cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM). Methods In a decision model, we compared neurosurgical, radiosurgical, and conservative management. A literature review yielded the risks and outcomes of interventions, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and seizures. Patients with CCM rated their quality of life to determine utilities. We estimated the expected number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and the ICH recurrence risk over five years, according to mode of presentation and CCM location (brainstem vs. other). We performed analyses with a time horizon of five years. Results Using the best available data, the expected number of QALYs for brainstem CCM presenting with ICH or focal neurological deficit was 2.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.54-3.08) for conservative, 3.01 (95% CI: 2.86-3.16) for neurosurgical, and 3.03 (95% CI: 2.88-3.18) for radiosurgical intervention; those for non-brainstem CCM presenting with ICH or focal neurological deficit were 3.08 (95% CI: 2.85-3.31) for conservative, 3.21 (95% CI: 3.01-3.36) for neurosurgical, and 3.19 (95% CI: 2.98-3.37) for radiosurgical intervention. For CCM presenting with epilepsy, QALYs were 3.09 (95% CI: 3.03-3.16) for conservative, 3.33 (95% CI: 3.31-3.34) for neurosurgical, and 3.27 (95% CI: 3.24-3.30) for radiosurgical intervention. Discussion and conclusion For the initial five years after presentation, our study provides Class III evidence that for CCM presenting with ICH or focal neurological deficit conservative management is the first option, and for CCM presenting with epilepsy CCM intervention should be considered. More comparative studies with long-term follow-up are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)939-945
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Stroke
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2019


  • Cerebral cavernous malformations, intracerebral hemorrhage, methodology, neurology, prevention, quality-adjusted life year, INTRACRANIAL VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS, QUALITY-OF-LIFE, BRAIN-STEM, MANAGEMENT, SURGERY

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