Publication

Power spectrum extraction for redshifted 21-cm Epoch of Reionization experiments: the LOFAR case

Harker, G., Zaroubi, S., Bernardi, G., Brentjens, M., de Bruyn, A. G., Ciardi, B., Jelic, V., Koopmans, L. V. E., Labropoulos, P., Offringa, A., Pandey, V. N., Pawlik, A. H., Schaye, J., Thomas, R. M., Yatawatta, S. & Mellema, G., 11-Jul-2010, In : Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 405, 4, p. 2492-2504 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

APA

Harker, G., Zaroubi, S., Bernardi, G., Brentjens, M., de Bruyn, A. G., Ciardi, B., Jelic, V., Koopmans, L. V. E., Labropoulos, P., Offringa, A., Pandey, V. N., Pawlik, A. H., Schaye, J., Thomas, R. M., Yatawatta, S., & Mellema, G. (2010). Power spectrum extraction for redshifted 21-cm Epoch of Reionization experiments: the LOFAR case. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 405(4), 2492-2504. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16628.x

Author

Harker, Geraint ; Zaroubi, Saleem ; Bernardi, Gianni ; Brentjens, Michiel ; de Bruyn, A. G. ; Ciardi, Benedetta ; Jelic, Vibor ; Koopmans, Leon V. E. ; Labropoulos, Panagiotis ; Offringa, Andre ; Pandey, V. N. ; Pawlik, Andreas H. ; Schaye, Joop ; Thomas, Rajat M. ; Yatawatta, Sarod ; Mellema, G. / Power spectrum extraction for redshifted 21-cm Epoch of Reionization experiments: the LOFAR case. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2010 ; Vol. 405, No. 4. pp. 2492-2504.

Harvard

Harker, G, Zaroubi, S, Bernardi, G, Brentjens, M, de Bruyn, AG, Ciardi, B, Jelic, V, Koopmans, LVE, Labropoulos, P, Offringa, A, Pandey, VN, Pawlik, AH, Schaye, J, Thomas, RM, Yatawatta, S & Mellema, G 2010, 'Power spectrum extraction for redshifted 21-cm Epoch of Reionization experiments: the LOFAR case', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 405, no. 4, pp. 2492-2504. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16628.x

Standard

Power spectrum extraction for redshifted 21-cm Epoch of Reionization experiments: the LOFAR case. / Harker, Geraint; Zaroubi, Saleem; Bernardi, Gianni; Brentjens, Michiel; de Bruyn, A. G.; Ciardi, Benedetta; Jelic, Vibor; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Labropoulos, Panagiotis; Offringa, Andre; Pandey, V. N.; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Schaye, Joop; Thomas, Rajat M.; Yatawatta, Sarod; Mellema, G.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 405, No. 4, 11.07.2010, p. 2492-2504.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Vancouver

Harker G, Zaroubi S, Bernardi G, Brentjens M, de Bruyn AG, Ciardi B et al. Power spectrum extraction for redshifted 21-cm Epoch of Reionization experiments: the LOFAR case. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2010 Jul 11;405(4):2492-2504. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16628.x


BibTeX

@article{037b3a43113d4a15b8e2c57e1c819298,
title = "Power spectrum extraction for redshifted 21-cm Epoch of Reionization experiments: the LOFAR case",
abstract = "One of the aims of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Epoch of Reionization (EoR) project is to measure the power spectrum of variations in the intensity of redshifted 21-cm radiation from the EoR. The sensitivity with which this power spectrum can be estimated depends on the level of thermal noise and sample variance, and also on the systematic errors arising from the extraction process, in particular from the subtraction of foreground contamination. We model the extraction process using realistic simulations of the cosmological signal, the foregrounds and noise, and so estimate the sensitivity of the LOFAR EoR experiment to the redshifted 21-cm power spectrum. Detection of emission from the EoR should be possible within 360 h of observation with a single station beam. Integrating for longer, and synthesizing multiple station beams within the primary (tile) beam, then enables us to extract progressively more accurate estimates of the power at a greater range of scales and redshifts. We discuss different observational strategies which compromise between depth of observation, sky coverage and frequency coverage. A plan in which lower frequencies receive a larger fraction of the time appears to be promising. We also study the nature of the bias which foreground fitting errors induce on the inferred power spectrum and discuss how to reduce and correct for this bias. The angular and line-of-sight power spectra have different merits in this respect, and we suggest considering them separately in the analysis of LOFAR data.",
keywords = "cosmology: theory, diffuse radiation, methods: statistical, radio lines: general, 21 CENTIMETER FLUCTUATIONS, INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM, COSMIC REIONIZATION, 1ST STARS, FOREGROUNDS, HYDROGEN, LINE, GAS, SIMULATIONS, CONSTRAINTS",
author = "Geraint Harker and Saleem Zaroubi and Gianni Bernardi and Michiel Brentjens and {de Bruyn}, {A. G.} and Benedetta Ciardi and Vibor Jelic and Koopmans, {Leon V. E.} and Panagiotis Labropoulos and Andre Offringa and Pandey, {V. N.} and Pawlik, {Andreas H.} and Joop Schaye and Thomas, {Rajat M.} and Sarod Yatawatta and G. Mellema",
year = "2010",
month = jul,
day = "11",
doi = "10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16628.x",
language = "English",
volume = "405",
pages = "2492--2504",
journal = "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society",
issn = "0035-8711",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "4",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Power spectrum extraction for redshifted 21-cm Epoch of Reionization experiments: the LOFAR case

AU - Harker, Geraint

AU - Zaroubi, Saleem

AU - Bernardi, Gianni

AU - Brentjens, Michiel

AU - de Bruyn, A. G.

AU - Ciardi, Benedetta

AU - Jelic, Vibor

AU - Koopmans, Leon V. E.

AU - Labropoulos, Panagiotis

AU - Offringa, Andre

AU - Pandey, V. N.

AU - Pawlik, Andreas H.

AU - Schaye, Joop

AU - Thomas, Rajat M.

AU - Yatawatta, Sarod

AU - Mellema, G.

PY - 2010/7/11

Y1 - 2010/7/11

N2 - One of the aims of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Epoch of Reionization (EoR) project is to measure the power spectrum of variations in the intensity of redshifted 21-cm radiation from the EoR. The sensitivity with which this power spectrum can be estimated depends on the level of thermal noise and sample variance, and also on the systematic errors arising from the extraction process, in particular from the subtraction of foreground contamination. We model the extraction process using realistic simulations of the cosmological signal, the foregrounds and noise, and so estimate the sensitivity of the LOFAR EoR experiment to the redshifted 21-cm power spectrum. Detection of emission from the EoR should be possible within 360 h of observation with a single station beam. Integrating for longer, and synthesizing multiple station beams within the primary (tile) beam, then enables us to extract progressively more accurate estimates of the power at a greater range of scales and redshifts. We discuss different observational strategies which compromise between depth of observation, sky coverage and frequency coverage. A plan in which lower frequencies receive a larger fraction of the time appears to be promising. We also study the nature of the bias which foreground fitting errors induce on the inferred power spectrum and discuss how to reduce and correct for this bias. The angular and line-of-sight power spectra have different merits in this respect, and we suggest considering them separately in the analysis of LOFAR data.

AB - One of the aims of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Epoch of Reionization (EoR) project is to measure the power spectrum of variations in the intensity of redshifted 21-cm radiation from the EoR. The sensitivity with which this power spectrum can be estimated depends on the level of thermal noise and sample variance, and also on the systematic errors arising from the extraction process, in particular from the subtraction of foreground contamination. We model the extraction process using realistic simulations of the cosmological signal, the foregrounds and noise, and so estimate the sensitivity of the LOFAR EoR experiment to the redshifted 21-cm power spectrum. Detection of emission from the EoR should be possible within 360 h of observation with a single station beam. Integrating for longer, and synthesizing multiple station beams within the primary (tile) beam, then enables us to extract progressively more accurate estimates of the power at a greater range of scales and redshifts. We discuss different observational strategies which compromise between depth of observation, sky coverage and frequency coverage. A plan in which lower frequencies receive a larger fraction of the time appears to be promising. We also study the nature of the bias which foreground fitting errors induce on the inferred power spectrum and discuss how to reduce and correct for this bias. The angular and line-of-sight power spectra have different merits in this respect, and we suggest considering them separately in the analysis of LOFAR data.

KW - cosmology: theory

KW - diffuse radiation

KW - methods: statistical

KW - radio lines: general

KW - 21 CENTIMETER FLUCTUATIONS

KW - INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

KW - COSMIC REIONIZATION

KW - 1ST STARS

KW - FOREGROUNDS

KW - HYDROGEN

KW - LINE

KW - GAS

KW - SIMULATIONS

KW - CONSTRAINTS

U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16628.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16628.x

M3 - Article

VL - 405

SP - 2492

EP - 2504

JO - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN - 0035-8711

IS - 4

ER -

ID: 5114794