Neurofeedback of SMR and beta1 frequencies: an investigation of learning indices and frequency-specific effectsGarcia Pimenta, M., van Run, C., de Fockert, J. W. & Gruzelier, J. H., 15-May-2018, In : Neuroscience. 378, p. 211-224 14 p.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review
Despite evidence that Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR) and beta1 neurofeedback have distinct cognitive enhancement effects, it remains unclear whether their amplitudes can be independently enhanced. Furthermore, demands for top-down attention control, postural restraint and maintenance of cognitive set processes, all requiring low-beta frequencies, might masquerade as learning and confound interpretation. The feasibility of selectively enhancing SMR and beta1 amplitudes was investigated with the addition of a random frequency control condition that also requires the potentially confounding cognitive processes. A comprehensive approach to assessing neurofeedback learning was undertaken through the calculation of learning indices within- and across-session and pre-to-post baseline. Herein we provide the first demonstration of beta1 within-session amplitude learning that was not attributable to extraneous cognitive processes, for it was not found with random frequency training. On the other hand, within-session SMR learning might have been obscured by high interindividual variability and methodological limitations such as the type of feedback screen, the insufficient number of sessions, and the exclusion of simultaneous theta and high-beta inhibition. Interestingly, SMR and beta1 amplitude increased across sessions in the three groups suggesting unspecific effects of neurofeedback in the low beta frequency band. Moreover, there was no clear evidence of frequency specificity associated with either SMR or beta1 training. Some methodological limitations may underpin the divergent results with previous studies.
|Number of pages||14|
|Publication status||Published - 15-May-2018|
- EEG-NEUROFEEDBACK, MUSIC PERFORMANCE, BRAIN POTENTIALS, ATTENTION, RHYTHM, SLEEP, ADHD, HZ, SYNCHRONIZATION, ALPHA/THETA