Multigenerational performance development of male and female top-elite swimmers-A global study of the 100 m freestyle eventPost, A. K., Koning, R. H., Visscher, C. & Elferink-Gemser, M. T., 8-Dec-2019, In : Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 8 p.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review
Background The present study investigated longitudinally the performance development of a multigenerational sample of competitive swimmers. The aim of the study was to provide unique insight into the junior toward senior performance development of those few who reached top-elite level. Season Best Times (SBT) of 100 m freestyle performance of international swimmers, (1.305 males, aged 12-26 and 1.841 females, aged 12-24) competing in at least five seasons between 1993 and 2018, were corrected for the prevailing world record (WR). Swim performance was defined as a relative measure: relative Season Best Time=(SBT/WR) x 100. Based on rSBT, four performance groups were defined: top-elite, elite, sub-elite, and high-competitive. Results Univariate analyses of variance showed that male top-elite swimmers outperformed high-competitive swimmers from the age of 12, sub-elite swimmers from the age of 14 and elite swimmers from the age of 18 while female top-elite swimmers outperformed high-competitive and sub-elite swimmers from the age of 12 and elite swimmers from the age of 14 (P <.05). Frequency analysis showed that male top-elite swimmers for the first time achieved top-elite level between the 17 and 24 years old (mean age of 21) while female top-elite swimmers started to perform at top-elite level between the 14 and 24 years old (mean age of 18). Conclusion Male and female top-elite swimmers are characterized by a high-performance level from 12 years on and progressively outperform swimmers from similar age. However, this goes together with a large variety in the individual pathways toward top-elite level within and between sexes.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 8-Dec-2019|
- acquisition of expertise, competitive swimming, sport performance, talent, world record, COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCE, ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE, EXPERT PERFORMANCE, SPORT, PROGRESSION, BENCHMARKS