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Low-carbohydrate diets affect energy balance and fuel homeostasis differentially in lean and obese rats

Morens, C., Sirot, V., Scheurink, A. J. W. & van Dijk, G., Dec-2006, In : American journal of physiology-Regulatory integrative and comparative physiology. 291, 6, p. 1622 - 1629 8 p.

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In parallel with increased prevalence of overweight people in affluent societies are individuals trying to lose weight, often using low-carbohydrate diets. Nevertheless, long-term metabolic consequences of those diets, usually high in (saturated) fat, remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated long-term effects of high-fat diets with different carbohydrate/protein ratios on energy balance and fuel homeostasis in obese (fa/fa) Zucker and lean Wistar rats. Animals were fed high-carbohydrate (HC), high-fat (HsF), or low-carbohydrate, high-fat, high-protein (LC-HsF-HP) diets for 60 days. Both lines fed the LC-HsF-HP diet displayed reduced energy intake compared with those fed the HsF diet (Zucker, -3.7%) or the HC diet (Wistar rats, -12.4%). This was not associated with lower weight gain relative to HC fed rats, because of increased food efficiencies in each line fed HsF and particularly LC-HsF-HP food. Zucker rats were less glucose tolerant than Wistar rats. Lowest glucose tolerances were found in HsF and particularly in LC-HsF-HP fed animals irrespective of line, but this paralleled reduced plasma adiponectin levels, elevated plasma resistin levels, higher retroperitoneal fat masses, and reduced insulin sensitivity (indexed by insulin-induced hypoglycemia) only in Wistar rats. In Zucker rats, however, improved insulin responses during glucose tolerance testing and tendency toward increased insulin sensitivities were observed with HsF or LC-HsF-HP feeding relative to HC feeding. Thus, despite adverse consequences of LC-HsF diets on blood glucose homeostasis, principal differences exist in the underlying hormonal regulatory mechanisms, which could have benefits for B-cell functioning and insulin action in the obese state but not in the lean state.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1622 - 1629
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican journal of physiology-Regulatory integrative and comparative physiology
Volume291
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2006

    Keywords

  • fa/fa Zucker rats, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, HIGH-PROTEIN DIETS, HIGH-FAT, INSULIN-RESISTANCE, ZUCKER RATS, WEIGHT-LOSS, GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE, RANDOMIZED-TRIAL, TREAT OBESITY, WISTAR RATS, BODY-WEIGHT

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