Long-Term Specialized Physical Therapy in Cervical Dystonia: Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial

van den Dool, J., Visser, B., Koelman, J. H., Engelbert, R. H. & Tijssen, M. A., Aug-2019, In : Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 100, 8, p. 1417-1425 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Copy link to clipboard


  • Long-Term Specialized Physical Therapy in Cervical Dystonia

    Final publisher's version, 923 KB, PDF document

    Request copy


Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a specialized physical therapy (SPT) program on disability in cervical dystonia (CD) compared to regular physical therapy (RPT).

Design: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

Setting: This study was performed by a physical therapist in a primary health care setting. Measurements were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 months in the botulinum toxin (BoNT) outpatient clinic of the neurology department.

Participants: Patients with primary CD and stable on BoNT treatment for 1 year (N=96).

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was disability assessed with the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS). Secondary outcomes were pain, anxiety, depression, quality of life (QOL), and health related costs over 12 months.

Results: A total of 72 participants (30 men, 42 women) finished the study: 40 received SPT, 32 RPT. No significant between group differences were found after 12 months of treatment (P = .326). Over these 12 months both groups improved significantly (P

Conclusion: SPT revealed no significant differences compared to RPT after 12 months of treatment on the TWSTRS disability scale. Both groups showed similar improvements compared to baseline. Positive results in the SPT group were higher patient perceived effects and general health perception. Treatment costs were lower in the SPT group. With lower costs and similar effects, the SPT program seems to be the preferred program to treat CD. (C) 2019 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1417-1425
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug-2019


  • Activites of daily living, Cervical dystonia, Rehabilitation, Spasmodic torticollis, BOTULINUM TOXIN, REHABILITATION, QUESTIONNAIRE, PHYSIOTHERAPY, HEALTH, INDIVIDUALS, INVENTORY, ANXIETY, PAIN

ID: 97438473