Location-dependent analysis of porosity and pore direction in tablets

Wu, Y. S., Frijlink, H. W., van Vliet, L. J., Stokroos, I. & van der Voort Maarschalk, K., 1-Aug-2005, In : Pharmaceutical Research. 22, 8, p. 1399-1405 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

PURPOSE: Several phenomena in tablets indicate that an inhomogeneous pore distribution is formed during the compaction process. Examples are lamination and the capping of corners. In order to gain an understanding of the relation between structure and compact properties, analyzing the structure in a location dependent manner would be extremely useful. Our aim was to visualize and to quantitatively analyze the pore distribution in compacts.

METHODS: This was done by embedding a cubic (sodium chloride) compact with polymer, allowing the compact to be cut without disrupting the structure. By doing so, it was possible to make scanning electron microscopic images from different angles at different locations in the compact. These images were made binary with a two-means cluster algorithm (Isodata) after which the porosity could be calculated. Counting the number of transitions from the pixels in the pores to the pixels in the sodium chloride particles in two perpendicular directions allows us to construct a measure for the anisotropic connectivity of the particles.

RESULTS: The results show an increase in porosity toward the bottom of the compact and showed a preferred orientation of the pores in the direction of compression.

CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method is suitable for analyzing the pore distribution quantitatively and for evaluating anisotropy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1399-1405
Number of pages7
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1-Aug-2005


  • Anisotropy, Drug Compounding, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Microscopy, Electron, Scanning, Porosity, Sodium Chloride, Tablets

ID: 1250946