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Joint association of vitamins D and K status with long-term outcomes in stable kidney transplant recipients

van Ballegooijen, A. J., Beulens, J. W. J., Keyzer, C. A., Navis, G. J., Berger, S. P., de Borst, M. H., Vervloet, M. G. & Bakker, S. J. L., 12-Feb-2019, In : Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation. 9 p.

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  • Joint association of vitamins D and K status with long-term outcomes in stable kidney transplant recipients

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Background: Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) experience substantial survival benefit compared with dialysis patients. However, their mortality and graft failure risk remain high. KTRs are often low in micronutrient status, including vitamins D and K. We investigated the association of both vitamins D and K status, and vitamin D treatment with all-cause mortality and death-censored graft failure.

Methods: We studied 461 KTRs from a single-centre study at median 6.1 years after transplantation. At baseline, vitamins D and K concentrations were measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix gla protein (dp-ucMGP) and patients were categorized into: 25(OH)D <50/≥50 nmol/L and median dp-ucMGP <1057/≥1057 pmol/L.

Results: Mean age was 52 ± 12 years, and 122 KTRs (26%) had low vitamins D and K status. During median 9.8 years follow-up, 128 patients (28%) died and 48 (10%) developed death-censored graft failure. Low vitamins D and K status was associated with 2.33 (1.26-4.30) [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval)] increased mortality risk and 3.25 (1.17-9.08) increased graft failure risk compared with KTR with 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L and dp-ucMGP <1057 pmol/L. Dp-ucMGP was strongly associated with mortality (per 500 pmol/L increase): 1.41 (1.08-1.41) for vitamin D treatment versus no treatment 1.07 (0.97-1.18), and graft failure 1.71 (1.17-2.49) for vitamin D treatment versus 1.19 (1.05-1.36) no treatment, P-interaction <0.07 for vitamin D treatment (n = 44).

Conclusions: Combined vitamins D and K deficiency are highly prevalent and are associated with increased mortality and graft failure risk compared with high vitamins D and K status. Low vitamin K status was strongly associated with an increased risk of premature mortality and graft failure for patients treated with vitamin D versus no vitamin D treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalNephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 12-Feb-2019

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