It's all in the timing: Measuring emotional reactions to stereotype threat before and after taking a test (Retracted article. See vol. 42, pg. 933, 2012)

Marx, D. M. & Stapel, D. A., 2006, In : European Journal of Social Psychology. 36, 5, p. 687-698 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

  • David M. Marx
  • Diederik A. Stapel

Stereotype threat is often described as resulting from increased anxiety over confirming a negative stereotype about one's group (Steele, 1997). However, variations in the type of emotional reactions targets experience as a function of stereotype threat has never been examined systematically before and after taking a test, thus it is unclear whether targets experience different emotions at different points in the testing session. The present study investigated this issue of emotional specificity. Results demonstrate that targets of a negative stereotype, but not non-targets, experienced heightened anxiety prior to taking a test under stereotype threat conditions and heightened frustration once the test was concluded. No effects were found in the non-stereotype threat conditions. These findings, therefore, highlight the specific affective states that targets and non-targets experience in threat and non-threat conditions, as well as how these affective states can be assessed using self-report measures. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)687-698
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Social Psychology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2006



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