In-situ mechanical behavior and slackness of the anterior cruciate ligament at multiple knee flexion angles

Rachmat, H., Janssen, D., Verkerke, G., Diercks, R. & Verdonschot, N., Mar-2016, In : Medical Engineering & Physics. 38, 3, p. 209-215 7 p.

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  • In-situ mechanical behavior and slackness of the anterior cruciate ligament

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In this study the in-situ tensile behavior and slackness of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was evaluated at various knee flexion angles. In four cadaveric knees the ACL was released at the tibial insertion, after which it was re-connected to a tensiometer. After pre-tensioning (10 N) the ACL in full-extension, the knee was flexed from 0 degrees to 150 degrees at 15 degrees increments, during which the ACL tension was measured. At each angle the ACL was subsequently elongated and shortened under displacement control, while measuring the ACL tension. In this manner, the pre-tension or the slackness, and the mechanical response of the ACL were measured. All ACL's displayed a higher tension at low (0 degrees-60 degrees) and high (120 degrees-150 degrees) flexion angles. The ACL slackness depended on flexion angle, with the highest slackness found at 75 degrees-90 degrees. Additionally, the ACL stiffness also varied with flexion angle, with the ACL behaving stiffer at low and high flexion angels. In general, the ACL was stiffest at 150 degrees, and most compliant at 90 degrees. The results of this study contribute to understanding the mechanical behavior of the ACL in-situ, and may help tuning and validating computational knee models studying ACL function. (C) 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)209-215
Number of pages7
JournalMedical Engineering & Physics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar-2016


  • ACL, Displacement, In-situ, Knee flexion, Slackness, Tension, FORCES, ANATOMY, MODEL, RECONSTRUCTION, STIFFNESS, VITRO, AGE

ID: 28667149