Indicators of (in)tolerance toward immigrants among European youth: an assessment of measurement invariance in ICCS 2016

Isac, M. M., Palmerio, L. & van der Werf, M. P. C. G., 28-Mar-2019, In : Large-Scale assessments in education. 7, 6, 21 p., 6.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Background: Promoting tolerance is an important goal of European education policies focused on education for democratic citizenship and human rights. In this article, we argue that cross-cultural comparability must be empirically assessed and ensured for the measurement of highly relevant indicators that serve to monitor inter-European and international differences in young people's tolerant attitudes toward immigrants.

Methods: Using the framework and data provided by the recent International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS 2016), we examine the extent to which average comparisons of cross-national differences in young people's tolerant attitudes toward immigrants are empirically justified. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) is applied to estimate the measurement model of the concept and test its measurement invariance across fourteen European countries.

Results: In line with prior research, our findings show that cross-cultural comparability can be achieved with some modifications. Results of measurement invariance analysis point to the achievement of full scalar invariance with the implication that average scores can be validly compared across the European educational systems under investigation. These findings are largely corroborated by robustness analyses.

Conclusions: We conclude by providing information on further scale refinement and improvement. Limitations and implications for further research are outlined and discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6
Number of pages21
JournalLarge-Scale assessments in education
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 28-Mar-2019


  • Tolerance, Attitudes toward immigrants, Measurement invariance, International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS), International large-scale assessments, OF-FIT INDEXES, ETHNIC-MINORITIES, SAMPLE-SIZE, TOLERANCE, ATTITUDES, CONTEXT, MODEL

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